Review for final exam: (Make sure you bring your poly-atomic ion cards and your formula cards!!!!!)
1. What are three units of measure of temperature?
a. How is Kelvin converted to Celsius?
Sample: Convert 37oC to Kelvin.
b. What is absolute zero?
2. What is the definition of a calorie?
a. How many calories are needed to raise the temperature of 20g of water 10oC?
b. How are calories related to joules? (conversion)
3. What is Energy?
4. Define potential and kinetic energy.
5. What are the steps in the scientific method? (include the definition for theory, law, and hypothesis)
a. What is a control?
b. What is a variable?
6. Define gravity and weight?
a. Is it possible to have weight without gravity?
7. What are the SI units for:
8. List the metric units from micro- to kilo-.
9. What is density?
10. Determine the significant digits for the following.
c. 12.43 x 1012
f. a + b =
g. e - a =
h. e / b =
11. What is dimensional analysis?
12. Why is estimation considered more accurate when reading a meter stick, graduated cylinder, of triple beam? (Be able to read each of the them. See pg 23 of your book for examples)
13. Perform the following conversions.
a. 7200 seconds to hours.
b. 35000cm to km
c. 20 weeks to minutes
d. 5 micrometers to meters
e. 45g to kilograms
14. define the following changes in state.
15. Define the following. (include the physical properties)
16. Define the following.
i. Properties of an ionic compound
i. Properties of a molecular substance
17. What is the difference between a chemical and physical change?
18. What is a group, family, and a period on the periodic table?
19. What is the periodic trend for atomic radii? How does ion formation affect the size of the atom?
20. What is the trend for electronegativity?
21. Draw carbon as it appears on the periodic table and label its mass, symbol, and protons.
22. How are neutrons and electrons determined from the information given on the periodic table?
23. What is an ion?
24. List the protons, electrons, neutrons and mass for the following ions.
25. What is an isotope?
26. What are valence electrons and how do they help determine the properties of atoms?
27. What is the Octet Rule?
28. State & draw (Lewis structure) the electron configuration for the following atoms.
29. What does Hund's rule state? How does this relate to the spin of the electrons?
30. Draw the s, p, & d hybrid orbitals (See graphics on pages 142 - 144).
31. How does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle relate to the location of an electron.
a. In a S-orbital, where are you most likely to find the electrons (see graphics on pages 141 &142)?
32. How are Lewis-dot diagrams related to the valence electrons of an element? (Draw the Lewis dot diagram for the following. Indicate how many unpaired electrons are in each.)
a. N b. P c. Na d. Al e. F f. CO2 g.NH3
33. Sketch the periodic table and label the alkaline earth metals, earth metals, transitional metals, rare earth metals, metalloids (semimetals), carbon family, halogens, and noble gases.
34. How do the hybrid orbitals relate to the first 4 principle energy levels.
35. How are cations and anions named?
36. How are the ions of transitional metals named?
37. Indicate how the following groups form ions. (give an example of each)
VIIA38. How are molecules named?
39. What is an ionic compound?
40. What is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond?
a. What is a polar covalent bond?
b. What is a polar non-covalent bond?
c. Indicate the following types of bonds using the charts on pages 241 & 242 . (calculate the electronegativity differences)
KBr CO CH4 SO2
41. Draw the following ball-n-stick models and give an example of each. (label the major angles)
c. trigonal planar
42. What is meant by the term like dissolves like?
43. How do electronegativities predict the type of bond formation.
44. Define the following reactions.
a. Direct combination.
45. How does conservation of mass relate to the reactants and products in a balanced reaction? (Balance the following equations.)
a. P + O2 = P2O5
b. NaNO3 = NaNO2 + O2
c. C8H18 + O2 = CO2 + H2O
d. What is the difference between a coefficient and a subscript?
46. What volume does a gas occupy at STP and what are the conditions of STP?
47. Write the conversion formula and solve the following.
a. Grams to volume of gas. What volume will 100g O2 fill at STP?
b. Volume to grams. How many grams of gas are present in 100L of N2 at STP?
c. Mass to mole. How many moles are present in 100g of NH3?
d. Mole to particles. How many particles are present in 5 moles of Cu?
48. Write the steps for solving a percent composition problem and solve the following. (Show your work!)
What is the percent composition for each element in water (H2O)?
49. Calculate the formula mass for the following. What is the formula mass of C6H12O6?
a. How is this different than the molar mass?
50. Balance the following formulas (HINT: criss-cross)
a. AlBr b. NaSO4 c. Fe(III)O d. Cu(II)NO3 e. KI f. BF
51. What types of elements form form diatomic molecules? (Give examples)
Last modified: May 26, 2004