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Naming and Identifying Acids and Bases

Objectives:

 

Key Terms:

 

Notes: (18-3)

Nomenclature Review

Acids:

Acids are substances that yield hydrogen when placed in water.  There are 2 different ways to name acids and it is based on the anion.

monatomic anion - 
        Hydro- prefix
        change the -ide to -ic
        end with the word acid
        ex: hydrochloric acid - HCl, hydrobromic acid - HBr, hydrosulfuric acid - H2S
Polyatomic anions -
        polyatomic name 1st followed by the suffix -ic
        end with the name acid
        ex: nitric acid - HNO3, sulfuric acid - H2SO4, phosphoric acid - H3PO4

Categories of Acids:

Binary Acids

Contains hydrogen and one other ion 
Are strong acids
example - HCl, HBr, HI

Oxy Acids

Contains hydrogen, oxygen, and one other element
Can be both strong or weak acids
example - HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4

Carboxylic Acids

Contain carbon and a carboxyl group (-COOH)
Are organic acids
most are classified as weak
example - HC2H3O2    

 

Naming Bases

monatomic ions - 
        the name of the first atom stays the same
        the name of the second has the suffix -ide added 
example - CaO        Calcium oxide
polyatomic ions - 
        the name of the first atom stays the same
        state the name of the polyatomic ion second
example - Na2CO3        Sodium carbonate

 

Categories of Bases:

Anions

Contain negatively charged monatomic or polyatomic ions
Can be either strong or weak
example - CaO, Na2CO3

Amines

Contain an amine group (NH2)
example - NH3 (ammonia), CH3NH2 (Methylamine)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last modified: April 14, 2003