The Formations of Solutions
1. Explain the process by which solutions form.
2. Give the definition of solubility and explain how it is
affected by various factors.
some point you may have heard the phrase "like dissolves like" (polar
dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar). To understand this
phenomena you must consider the intermolecular forces at work in a
solution. If the intermolecular forces present in the solution are compatible
with the solvent, the solvent is considered soluble.
is the term given to the interaction between solvent and solute. |
the solvent is water the reaction is called hydration - water is the most
common polar solvent|
solubility is the amount of solute that can dissolve in a solution at given
conditions. It depends on several conditions and is expressed in grams of
solute per 100grams of solvent.
|Solubility of a gas is decreased with an increase in temperature
|due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules|
|Solubility of a solid is usually increased with an increase in
temperature (endothermic reactions)
|Exothermic - increasing temperature decreases solubility|
|an increase temperature has no effect on solubility when there is
no temperature change for the solution|
|Solubility of a gas is increased with and increase in pressure|
|Solubility of of a solid is usually unaffected by pressure|
Factors affecting the rate of dissolving
|The greater the surface area the greater the rate of dissolving|
|Breaking the solute into smaller pieces increases the surface area|
|Stirring - increases the rate of dissolving by bringing solvent in contact
|Temperature - increases rate by increasing the kinetic energy of the