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CP Sci 9- 1st Sem.

Gen Chem - 1st Sem.

3rd Quarter Midterm Blueprint

 

1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how

periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic

structure. As a basis for understanding this concept:

  1. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.

1)      What is the trend (how is the table arranged)

2)      Sketch an element label its mass, protons, neutrons, electrons, & atomic #.

3)      Which sub-atomic particle determines the identity of the element?

 

 

b.      Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, non-metals, and halogens. 

1)      Sketch and label the listed areas.

2)      Where are the following found on the periodic table: periods, groups, & families?

 

  1. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.

1)      Sketch and label the listed areas. (alkali metals, alkaline earth metals & ransition metals)

2)      Define and give the trend for ionization energy.

3)      Define and give the trend for electronegativity.

4)      What is the trend for the size of the atoms?

 

  1. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.

1)      What are the blocks associated with the valence electrons?

2)      What orbitals are involved in bonding and where are they located on the periodic table?

3)      Pick 4 main group atoms from different areas and determine the valence electrons of each.

 

  1. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

1)      What is contained in the nucleus of an atom?

2)      What force holds the nucleus together?

3)      Within the atom there are protons, neutrons and electrons.  Which of the subatomic particles determine the mass and which determines the volume?

             

2. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between

atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept:

  1. Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.

1)      Define the three different types of bonds. (covalent, metallic, and ionic)

2)      What determines whether a covalent bond is polar or not?

  1. Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2 and many large biological molecules are covalent.

1)      The body is made primarily of N, O, C, & H.  How many covalent bonds can each hold?

2)      What is the octet rule

3)      What is an advantage of covalent bonding over ionic bonding (think structure) when making large macromolecules?

 

  1. Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.

1)      What creates the electrostatic attraction between ions?

2)      What is lattice energy?

3)      What groups form cations and anions and how do you determine their charge?

 

  1. Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random pattern relative to one another because the intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in a solid form.

1)      List the different types of intermolecular forces and how they are formed.

2)      Based on the Kinetic Molecular Theory, why are solutions solid, liquid or gas?

 

  1. Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.

1)      Draw the Lewis dot structures for the following atoms: H, Mg, B, Si, N, O, F, & Ne.

2)      Draw the Lewis dot structures for the following molecules CH4, NH3, HCl, SO2, & F2.

 

3. The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for

understanding this concept:

a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.

1)      When balancing equations, what is the only acceptable change that can be made to the equation?

2)      Balance the following equations:

1.      O2 +   H2 g   H2O

2.      CO2 +   H2O g   C6H12O6 +   O2

 

b. Students know the quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams.

1)      Define mole.

2)      What atom is the standard reference for the mole?

3)      What is an isotope?

4)      How is the mass of 1 mole of a substance determined?

 

c. Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 1023 particles (atoms or molecules).

1)      What is Avagadro’s number and what does it mean?

 

d. Students know how to determine the molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.

1)      How can the weight the of one mole of a substance be determined by looking at the periodic table?

2)      What is the mass of one mole of sugar (C6H12O6)?

3)      What is the conversion factor to convert mass to moles?

4)      What is the conversion factor to convert mass to volume?

5)      What is the conversion factor to convert mass to particles?

 

e. Students know how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.

1)      State the law of conservation of mass.

2)      What is a limiting reactant?

3)      Calculate the amount of water that will be produced when 5.0g of H2 is combined with excess O2. (Hint: balance & use ratios)

 

4. The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know the random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface.

1)      How does the Kinetic Molecular theory account for the pressure that gas exerts in a container?

2)       Why is there atmospheric pressure?

3)      What is the formula for pressure?

4)      Why does the pressure increase faster as you go down in the ocean compared to a decrease in altitude above the water?

 

b. Students know the random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases.

     1)  What property of gases accounts for the fact that all gases form a solution (equally mixed throughout)?

c. Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.

1)      State Boyle’s Law and write the equation.

2)      State Charles’s Law and write the equation.

3)      State the ideal gas law and write the equation.

 

d. Students know the values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP).

1)      What is the STP for gas equations?

 

e. Students know how to convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.

1)      What is the equation to convert K to oC?

2)      What is the equation to convert oC to K?

3)      How many K is 100 oC?

 

f. Students know there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin.

1)      What is absolute zero?

2)      What happens to all Kinetic energy at absolute zero?

 

5. Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.

1)      List the following properties of an acid:

a.       Taste

b.      Color it turns litmus paper

c.       What gas is produced with reaction with metals

 

2)      List the following properties of an base:

a.       Taste

b.      Color it turns litmus paper

c.       What do bases feel like?

3)      What is a chemical indicator?

 

b. Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances.

1)      What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid?

2)      What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an base?

3)      Which family combines with H to make the strongest acids?

 

c. Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.

1)      What is the definition of a strong acid or base?

2)      What conditions contribute to the strength of an acid in a solution?

 

d. Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions.

1)      What is the pH scale and what numbers does it span?

2)      What the acidic values are on the pH scale?

3)      What the basic values are on the pH scale?

4)      What is considered neutral on the pH scale?


 

 

 

6. Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances. As a basis for

understanding this concept:

a. Students know the definitions of solute and solvent.

1)      Define solvent.

2)      Define solute.

3)      Which is the two is the higher percentage of the solution if both are miscible?

b. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion.

1)      What is dissolution of a solid?

2)      List the properties of a solution?

3)      Within a solution, what is the equilibrium point?

4)      Describe what happens to a salt (NaCl) when it dissolves in water (how are the polar water molecules arranged?

c. Students know temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the dissolving process.

1)      How are the following solutions affected by pressure, temperature, and surface area?

a.       Solid

b.      Liquid

c.       gas

d. Students know how to calculate the concentration of a solute in terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts per million, and percent composition.

1)      What is molarity?

2)      If  228g of HCl are dissolved in 2L of water, what is the molarity of the solution?

3)      What is the percent composition? (remember that water = 1g/ml)

 

 

7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of

matter. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

1)      What is heat?

2)      What is temperature?

3)      How is heat transferred?

b. Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

1)      List the following characteristics of an endothermic reaction:

a.       Temperature of the surrounding environment.

b.      Where heat is located in the balanced equation.

c.       What is happening to the chemical bonds?

2)      List the following characteristics of an exothermic reaction:

a.       Temperature of the surrounding environment.

b.      Where heat is located in the balanced equation.

c.       What is happening to the chemical bonds?

3)      Compare the potential energy of reactants and products in an endothermic reaction.

c. Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

1)      Define the following changes of state as either endothermic or exothermic.

a.       Melting

b.      Freezing

c.       Vaporizing

d.      Sublimation

e.       Condensation

f.        Deposition

d. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

1)      Define specific heat.

2)      Define latent heat.

3)      Draw the phase change diagram for water as it goes from ice to steam.

 

 

8. Chemical reaction rates depend on factors that influence the frequency of collision of

reactant molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products with time.

1)       How does the law of conservation of mass apply to balanced reactions?

2)       As the reactants are used up in a reaction, what can be said about the mass of the products?

b. Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.

1)       How do the following variables affect reaction rates?

a.        Temperature

b.      Pressure

c.       Concentration

c. Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.

1)      What is a catalyst?

2)      What does a catalyst do to the energy of activation of a reaction?

3)      What is another name for a catalyst in a living organism? (Hint: think digestion)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level. As a basis for

understanding this concept:

a. Students know how to use LeChatelier’s principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure.

1)      State LeChatelier’s principle.

2)      Describe what happens to a reaction at equilibrium under the following conditions.

a.       Reactants are removed

b.      Heat is added in an exothermic reaction

c.       Products are removed

d.      Pressure is added in a reaction that produces gas

e.       Heat is added to a decomposition reaction

b. Students know equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.

      1)  Define dynamic chemical equilibrium.

 

 

10. The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic

molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know large molecules (polymers), such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits.

1)      Define the following types of molecule subunits.

a.       Monomer

b.      Dimer

c.       Polymer

2)      The code for all living things is based on repeating sequences of how many nucleic acids?

b. Students know the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of a large variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological molecules.

1)      What is the central atom of most organic molecules?

2)      Why characteristics of carbon make it such a good central atom (Hint: valence atoms and type of bonds possible)

c. Students know amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

1)      What are the individual units that make up a protein called?

2)      What type of bond attaches amino acids in a protein?

3)      What gives amino acids their unique shape and function?

4)      Where is the “blueprint” for proteins in the body found?

 

 

11. Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes, including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and human-made isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held together by nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic repulsion between the protons.

1)      What is the name of the force that holds the nucleus together?

2)      Which two atomic sub-particles are held together by this force?

b. Students know the energy release per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E=mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.

1)      Define the following nuclear reactions.

a.       Fusion

b.      Fission

2)      What does the law of conservation of mass say about nucleons involved in nuclear reactions?

3)      Compare the amount of energy released in nuclear reactions compared to the amount of energy released in an average sized chemical reaction (combustion).

c. Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.

1)      Define the following:

a.       Isotope

b.      Parent isotope

c.       Daughter isotope

d.      Half-life

d. Students know the three most common forms of radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how the nucleus changes in each type of decay.

1)      Describe the following three types of radioactive decay.

a.       Alpha

b.      Beta

c.       Gamma

e. Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation produce different amounts and kinds of damage in matter and have different penetrations.

1)      Describe the health consequences associated with each of the following types of radiation.

d.      Alpha

e.       Beta

a.       Gamma

 

 

 

 

 

Last modified: January 27, 2005