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Semester 1

Semester 1 review - 2003



Complete each sentence or statement.


            1.   When continental plates pull apart at a divergent boundary on land, a(n) ____________________ forms.  

            2.   The part of the mantle called the ____________________ is made of soft rock that bends like plastic.  

            3.   In the asthenosphere, heat is transferred as soft rock flows slowly in cycles known as ____________________.  

            4.   Scientists known as ____________________ study the forces that shape Earth’s surface.  

            5.   When you touch a hot plate, the transfer of heat from the plate to your hand is called ____________________.

            6.   The theory of ____________________ was that all the continents once were joined as a single supercontinent and have since drifted apart.  

            7.   The energy from the sun that warms your face is transferred by a process called ____________________. 

            8.   The process of ____________________ continually adds new crust to the ocean floor along both sides of the mid-ocean ridge. 

            9.   Two of Earth’s plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, along a ____________________ boundary. 

           10.   Oceanic crust is made up mostly of an igneous rock called ____________________.  

           11.   The lithosphere is broken into sections called ____________________ , which float on top of the asthenosphere. 

           12.   A continental plate collides with an oceanic plate at a(n)  ____________________ boundary.  

           13.   Wegener believed that the continents had once been joined in one landmass called ____________________. 

           14.   Scientists think that the ____________________, made of solid iron and nickel, spins to produce Earth’s magnetic field. 

           15.   Geologists learn about Earth’s interior by studying ____________________, which move through Earth. 

           16.   A fault that is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to move over the foot wall is called a(n) ____________________.  

           17.   Layers of rock that bend can produce a downward fold known as a(n) ____________________.  

           18.   A change in the volume or shape of Earth’s crust is called ____________________.  

           19.   The process in which the violent shaking of an earthquake turns soft soil into liquid mud is called ____________________. 

           20.   The seismic waves that travel along Earth’s surface and produce the most severe ground movements are called ____________________. 

           21.   Vibrations that move through the ground carrying the energy released during an earthquake are called ____________________. 

           22.   The scale that measures the strength of an earthquake based on seismic waves and movement along a fault is called the ____________________ scale.  

           23.   Earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side and up and down only through solids are known as ____________________. 

           24.   The stress force that causes a mass of rock to pull or twist in opposite directions is called ____________________. 

           25.   The point beneath the surface where rock breaks and an earthquake starts is the ____________________. 

           26.   A valley that dips between two parallel ranges of hills was formed by a downward fold in rock called a(n) ____________________. 

           27.   A major volcanic belt known as the ____________________ circles the Pacific Ocean.  

           28.   Alternating layers of lava and ash form a type of volcanic landform called a(n) ____________________ volcano.  

           29.   A quiet eruption may produce slow moving, cooler lava that hardens to form rough chunks. This type of lava is called ____________________.  

           30.   Groundwater heated by a nearby body of magma can spray from the ground under pressure, forming a(n) ____________________. 

           31.   Mountains that are formed by volcanoes along a coastline occur at a ____________________ plate boundary. 

           32.   An energy source called ____________________ energy is provided by water heated by magma.  

           33.   A string of islands known as a(n) ____________________ can form from the collision of two oceanic plates.  

           34.   Magma that leaves a volcano’s vent is called ____________________.  

           35.   Magma flows easily when it is low in ____________________, a material made of oxygen and silicon. 

           36.   The smallest lava fragments produced by an explosive eruption are called volcanic ____________________.  

           37.   An eruption of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases from a volcano is called a(n) ____________________.  

           38.   The splitting of a mineral along flat surfaces is a property called ____________________.  

           39.   The atoms of a mineral are arranged in a repeating pattern to form a solid called a(n) ____________________.  

           40.   One way to identify a mineral is to rub it against a piece of unglazed tile to observe its ____________________. 

           41.   Gold is an example of a mineral that occurs as a(n) ____________________, which is composed of a single kind of atom. 

           42.   Shiny minerals, such as galena, are said to have metallic ____________________.  

           43.   A series of processes known as the ____________________ continuously changes rocks from one kind to another kind. 

           44.   In the rock cycle, some rock melts and forms magma in the layer of Earth known as the ____________________. 

           45.   Dissolved minerals and particles of sediment stick together to form sedimentary rock in a process called ____________________. 

           46.   As layer upon layer of sediments are deposited, the process of ____________________ presses them together. 

           47.   Foliated and nonfoliated are terms used to describe the texture of ____________________ rocks.  

           48.   Two conditions that can cause sedimentary rock to change to metamorphic rock are pressure and ____________________.  

           49.   Coal is an example of a(n) ____________________ rock, a sedimentary rock that forms where thick layers of plant and animal remains are deposited.  

           50.   Sediment settles out of moving water by the process of ____________________.  

           51.   The actions of animals most commonly can cause the type of weathering known as ____________________.  

           52.   Some plants produce acids that result in ____________________ weathering.  

           53.   One cause of mechanical weathering is ____________________, or the wearing away of rock by rock particles. 

           54.   A rock that contains tiny, connected spaces through which water can move is said to be ____________________. 

           55.   One agent of chemical weathering is ____________________, which combines with water to form carbonic acid. 

           56.   Soil begins to form when the solid layer of rock called ____________________ weathers.  

           57.   Plants need the ____________________, or decayed organic material, in soil to grow.  

           58.   The A horizon, or ____________________, is often very dark brown due to its high humus content.  

           59.   Each soil ____________________, or layer, differs in color and texture from the layer above or below it.  

           60.   Two factors that determine the rate of weathering are the type of rock and the ____________________.  

           61.   The major agent of erosion that shapes Earth’s land surface is moving ____________________.  

           62.   Loess is sediment made up of fine particles of silt that have been deposited far from their source by ____________________.  

           63.   In the process of ____________________, plants use water, plus carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, to make their own food. 

           64.   On a hot day at the beach, the water feels cooler than the sand because of water’s high ____________________. 

           65.   Fresh water found in soil and rock layers below Earth’s surface is called ____________________.  

           66.   Most water in Earth’s atmosphere is in the gaseous form, called ____________________.  

           67.   Liquid water can change to water vapor through boiling or ____________________.  

           68.   The three states in which water is found on Earth are solid, ____________________, and gas.  

           69.   If the temperature of water is lowered to ____________________ºC, the water changes into the solid state.  

           70.   Because water dissolves so many substances, it is sometimes called the universal ____________________.  

           71.   The ____________________ is the continuous process by which water moves through the living and nonliving parts of the environment.  

           72.   Water enters the atmosphere from the leaves of plants through the process of ____________________. 

           73.   The energy for the water cycle originally comes from the ____________________.  

           74.   The area of soil in which the pores are totally filled with water is called the ____________________ zone. 

           75.   New water that enters an aquifer from the surface is called ____________________.  

           76.   Two ways that groundwater naturally comes to the surface are ____________________ and geysers.  

           77.   The top of the saturated zone is called the ____________________.  

           78.   People do not have to use a pump to obtain water from a(n) ____________________ well.  

           79.   A period of less rain than normal in an area is a ____________________ .  

           80.   The addition of any substance to water that has a negative effect on living things is called ____________________. 

           81.   One source of water pollution is ____________________, which are chemicals used to kill organisms that damage crops. 

           82.   An agricultural pollutant that increases the growth of algae in a lake is a ____________________.  

           83.   Water has ____________________ energy when it is moving.  

           84.   In a hydroelectric plant, water is stored behind a ____________________ until it is needed to produce electricity. 

           85.   Some people obtain their water from underground layers of rock or sediment called ____________________. 

           86.   Most waves form when energy is transferred to water from ____________________.  

           87.   The lowest point of a wave is called the ____________________.  

           88.   Tsunamis are caused by ____________________ on the ocean floor.  

           89.   The daily rise and fall of water on Earth’s coastlines are called ___________________.  

           90.   The force of the sun’s and moon’s ____________________ pulling on Earth causes tides.  

           91.   Hills of wind-blown sand called ____________________ help to prevent beach erosion.  

           92.   Surface currents curve because of the ____________________ caused by Earth’s rotation.  

           93.   The condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place is known as ____________________.  

           94.   The name of the molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms is ____________________.  

           95.   The atmospheric gas called ____________________ forms clouds when it condenses.  

           96.   The gas that is found in the greatest amount in the atmosphere is ____________________.  

           97.   The human activity that causes the most air pollution is the burning of ____________________.  

           98.   The weight of a column of air pushing on an object causes ____________________.  

           99.   The ____________________ of air can be calculated if the mass and volume of air are known.  

         100.   On a mountaintop, a person becomes out of breath quickly because fewer ____________________ molecules are present per cubic meter of air.  

         101.   Animals produce the atmospheric gas ____________________, which plants need to live.  

         102.   In the part of the atmosphere called the ____________________, solar particles hit atoms and cause them to glow.  

         103.   The ____________________ extends from the top of the troposphere to the bottom of the mesosphere. 

         104.   Energy travels through space to Earth in the form of ____________________ waves.  

         105.   Solar energy called ____________________ radiation is felt as heat and has wavelengths longer than that of red light. 

         106.   In the atmosphere, some of the sun’s rays get ____________________, or reflected in all directions.  

         107.   Gases in the air hold energy that is radiated from Earth’s surface in a process called the ____________________.  

         108.   An instrument called a(n) ____________________ is used to measure how hot or cold the air is.  

         109.   Most of the heating of the troposphere occurs by ____________________, which is the transfer of heat by fluid movement.  

         110.   If 4 grams of water vapor are present in a cubic meter of air that can hold a maximum of 10 grams, the ____________________ is 40 percent.  

         111.   Uneven heating of the atmosphere leads to differences in air ____________________, which causes wind. 

         112.   A sea breeze is a type of ____________________ wind.  

         113.   Winds that blow between the equator and the poles are ____________________ winds.  

         114.   Winds in the mid-latitudes that blow from west to east are called ____________________.  

         115.   The ____________________ is the temperature at which water in air changes from a gas to a liquid.  

         116.   Clouds that form near the ground and look like fluffy heaps of cotton are called ____________________.  

         117.   Flat, layered ____________________ clouds can cover most of the sky.  

         118.   An ice pellet larger than 5 millimeters in diameter that forms during a thunderstorm is called a(n) ____________________. 

         119.   Mist and drizzle are made of small ____________________.  

         120.   A ____________________ air mass can bring thunderstorms to the United States in summer.  

         121.   A(n) ____________________ front may bring many days of rain because neither air mass can move the other.  

         122.   Where a warm air mass is caught between two cooler air masses, a(n) ____________________ front occurs. 

         123.   From the center of a “high,” or ____________________, winds spiral outward toward areas of low pressure. 

         124.   A large amount of humid air that cools below 0°C can produce a ____________________storm.  

         125.   Storms that form within large cumulonimbus clouds and produce rain and lightning are called ____________________.  

         126.   Scientists called ____________________ study the causes of weather and attempt to predict it.  

         127.   A long-lasting storm that begins over the warm surface of the ocean and has winds of 119 kilometers per hour or higher is a(n) ____________________.  

         128.   On a weather map, places that have the same temperature are joined with lines called ____________________. 

         129.   A weather map uses triangles and half-circles to show the type and direction of movement of ____________________ . 

         130.   A(n) ____________________ front is a fast-moving front that often brings thunderstorms followed by clear skies. 

         131.   Cold, dry ____________________ air masses blow into the United States from central Canada.  

         132.   Hot, dry air moves into the Southwest in summer from a ____________________ air mass.  

         133.   Trees are examples of ____________________ resources because they can be naturally replaced as they are used.  

         134.   The process of burning gasoline in a car engine to release energy is called ____________________.  

         135.   A liquid fossil fuel formed from the remains of animals, algae, and protists is ____________________.  

         136.   If fossil fuels continue to be used more rapidly than they are formed, the reserves will eventually be ____________________. 

         137.   The distance traveled by a moving object per unit of time is called ____________________.  

         138.   The basic SI unit of length is the ____________________.  

         139.   Speed that does not change is referred to as ____________________ speed.  

         140.   The statement that the motion of a hurricane is 20 kilometers per hour in an easterly direction is a description of the hurricane’s ____________________. 

         141.   Acceleration is the rate of change in ____________________.  

         142.   A golf ball ____________________ when either its speed or direction changes.  

         143.   The motion of a car stopping at a traffic light is an example of a ____________________ acceleration, also called deceleration.  

         144.   If a train traveling north at 30 m/s brakes to a stop in 1 minute, its acceleration is ____________________ southward. 

         145.   If two lines appear on the same motion graph, the line with the steeper ____________________ indicates a greater speed. 

         146.   The overall force on an object after all the forces are added together is called the ____________________ force. 

         147.   Unbalanced forces acting on an object produce ____________________ motion.  

         148.   A measure of an object’s ____________________ is a measure of the object’s inertia.  

         149.   A person traveling in a car that stops suddenly keeps moving forward due to ____________________.  

         150.   The downward force acting on an object in free fall is the force of ____________________.  

         151.   A(n) ____________________ is an object that is thrown.  

         152.   When ____________________ equals the force of gravity on a falling object, the object reaches terminal velocity. 

         153.   As the distance between two objects decreases, the gravitational force between them ____________________. 

         154.   Friction acts in a direction ____________________ to an object’s direction of motion.  

         155.   Even though the water in a filled bathtub may be at the same temperature as water in a teacup, the water in the bathtub has more ____________________ because it contains a greater number of water molecules. 

         156.   The SI unit of heat is the ____________________.  

         157.   The handle of a spoon in a bowl of soup becomes warm due to heat transfer by the process of ____________________. 

         158.   Stars transfer thermal energy by the process of ____________________.  

         159.   A mechanical wave is created when a medium ____________________, or moves back and forth or up and down. 

         160.   In a longitudinal wave moving along a spring, areas where the coils are farthest apart are called ____________________. 

         161.   The ____________________ of a mechanical wave is a direct measure of its energy.  

         162.   As the frequency of a wave traveling at constant speed increases, its ____________________ decreases.  

Short Answer


Use the diagram to answer each question.



         163.   Earth’s solid inner core spins inside the hot, molten metal of which layer? 

         164.   The asthenosphere is part of which layer of Earth? 

         165.   Pressure increases with depth toward the center of Earth. In which layer would you expect pressure to be the greatest? 

         166.   Which layer of Earth is made up partly of crust and partly of mantle material? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         167.   Which type of plate boundary occurs at X? 

         168.   What feature occurs at Y, and how does it form? 

         169.   What is happening at Z? 

         170.   Which type of plate boundary occurs at Y? 

         171.   What feature occurs at X and how does it form? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         172.   Describe the rock layers shown in Diagram A and any forces acting on the rock. 

         173.   In diagram B, which type of fault will form if the stress force continues? Explain. 

         174.   What caused the rock layers to take on the shape shown in diagram C? 

         175.   Contrast the plate movements that cause the stresses in diagrams B and C. 

         176.   Will a normal fault result from the stresses being applied to the rock unit in diagram D? Explain. 

         177.   Compare diagram B to diagram A.  How is it different? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.




         178.   Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram A and describe how it forms. 

         179.   Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram B and describe how it forms. 

         180.   Name the type of volcano illustrated in diagram C and describe how it forms. 

         181.   In the United States, where do volcanoes like the one shown in diagram C occur? 

         182.   What kind of eruption—quiet, explosive, or both at different times—would you expect from each volcano shown? 

         183.   If the magma chamber beneath volcano B empties and then collapses, what kind of feature will form?Explain.


Use the diagram to answer each question.



         184.   How do volcanoes form at B? 

         185.   In the United States, where can volcanoes like those at B be found? 

         186.   Describe an exception to the patterns pictured at A and B where volcanoes also can form. 

         187.   Name and describe the type of boundary shown at A. 

         188.   How do volcanoes form at A? 

         189.   Name and describe the type of boundary shown at B. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         190.   In the rock cycle, how could a metamorphic rock become magma? 

         191.   What step in the rock cycle helps sedimentary rock to form? 

         192.   In the rock cycle, what happens to magma and lava once they cool and harden? 

         193.   Must sedimentary rock become metamorphic rock before it can become magma? Explain your answer. 

         194.   Describe two pathways through the rock cycle in which igneous rock can become metamorphic rock. 

         195.   Describe a pathway through the rock cycle in which magma becomes sedimentary rock. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         196.   Match Rock B with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock B into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

         197.   Match Rock C with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock C into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

         198.   Match Rock D with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock D into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

         199.   Match Rock E with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock E into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

         200.   Match Rock F with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock F into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

         201.   Match Rock A with the correct rock from the following list: slate, breccia, granite, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss. Classify Rock A into one of the three major rock groups and explain how it formed. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         202.   In which layer of soil in the diagram would you find humus? What is the soil in this layer called? 

         203.   Which layer of soil in the diagram is made up only of partly weathered rock? What is this layer called? 

         204.   Which layer in the diagram provides the basic material that forms soil? Of what material is this layer made? 

         205.   Which layer of soil in the diagram contains clay and minerals but little humus? What is this layer called? 

         206.   The top three layers in the diagram are the three soil horizons. Which of the soil horizons forms last? Explain your answer. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         207.   Identify the step in which water changes from a liquid to a gas. 

         208.   How does water enter the area marked with an A? 

         209.   Identify the step in which water returns to Earth’s surface from the atmosphere. 

         210.   Which steps in the diagram involve a change of state? 

         211.   Describe two different paths a raindrop falling in the mountains might take to reach the ocean. 

         212.   Identify the part of Earth’s surface where most evaporation occurs and most precipitation falls. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         213.   Which well(s) end in a saturated zone? 

         214.   Which well(s) end in an unsaturated zone? 

         215.   Which well(s) will not provide water? Explain why not. 

         216.   Describe how water enters Aquifer A. 

         217.   Predict whether the materials that make up Aquifers A and B are permeable or impermeable. Explain your answer. 

         218.   Would Aquifer A or Aquifer B be more likely to produce an artesian well? Explain your answer. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         219.   What are the names of the six layers of the atmosphere shown? 

         220.   Give the number and name of the layer in which Earth’s weather occurs. 

         221.   Give the number and name of the layer that contains the ozone layer. 

         222.   Within layer 2, what happens to the temperature as you go higher? 

         223.   How many times deeper is the mesosphere than the troposphere? 

         224.   Give the number and name of the deepest layer of the atmosphere. 

         225.   What is the most abundant gas in air? 

         226.   What is the second most abundant gas in air? How many times greater is the percentage of nitrogen than the percentage of oxygen? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         227.   In diagram Y, which warms up more slowly, the land or the water? 

         228.   In diagram X, which way does the wind blow? Why? 

         229.   In diagram Y, which way does the wind blow? Why? 

         230.   Which diagram shows the formation of a sea breeze? 

         231.   Which diagram shows the formation of a land breeze? 

         232.   In diagram X, which cools more quickly, the land or water? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         233.   What does A represent? In what direction is it moving? 

         234.   What is B called? What does it connect? 

         235.   What does C represent? 

         236.   What does D represent? In what direction is it moving? 

         237.   What does E represent? 

         238.   What is F called? What does it connect? 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         239.   Which air masses shown are likely to bring dry weather to the United States? 

         240.   Classify each of the air masses shown as continental or maritime and as polar or tropical. 

         241.   As air mass B passes over, is snow more likely at location W or location X? Explain your answer. 

         242.   Is a tornado more likely to occur at location Y or Z? Explain your answer. 

         243.   Describe the temperature and humidity of air mass A. 

         244.   Describe the temperature and humidity of air mass F. 

Use the diagram to answer each question.



         245.   Which of the energy sources shown are fossil fuels? 

         246.   Which energy sources shown are considered to be renewable? 

         247.   Which energy source produces the greatest percentage of electricity? 

         248.   Which two of the named sources shown produce the most air pollution? Which two produce the least? 

         249.   What type of nuclear reaction is currently used to produce electricity? 

         250.   Predict how this graph is likely to have changed 100 years from now. Explain your answer.



Last modified: January 09, 2004