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Types of Mountains

Objectives:

    1.    Classify mountains by their most prominent feature.

    2.    Compare and contrast folded mountains, volcanic mountains, and fault-block mountains.

Key Terms

    folded mountain        volcanic mountain        fault-block mountain

Notes: (11-3)

Mountains throughout the world have formed as a result of pressures (compression, tension, & shear) deep within the lithosphere.  The types of pressures present have a great impact on the physical characteristics of the mountain ranges.  Mountains are classified into three main categories based on these physical characteristics.

Folded mountains

Folded mountains are the product of two inter continental (continent-continent) plate collisions.  

Ocean plate between the two continents disappears 
Subduction ceases due to near equal density
Mountains are formed as the land is compressed and folded upward
Found in mountain belts
ex: Appalachians, Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, Alps

(www.creationscience.com/.../images/ HydroplateOverview24.jpg)

Dome Mountains

Dome mountains are rounded isolated structures that are usually not associated with mountain belts as they occur in generally flat regions.  They can be classified into two distinct categories: Plutonic & Tectonic

    Plutonic Domes

Formed from an igneous intrusion
Lacoliths and batholiths both form igneous dome mountains
ex: Yosemite, Colorado plateau mountains

(Leilani Ahsing - 2003)

    Tectonic Domes

Dome mountains resulting from uplifting of tectonic plates
No plate boundaries are directly involved in the formation
ex: Adirondack Mountains (NY), Black Hills (SD)

Fault-Block Mountains

Fault block mountains are formed as a result of a combination of tension and uplift forces.  The stretching and cracking of the crust gives the mountains their appearance and name.

ex: Sierra Nevada (CA)

thumbnail: aerial view of Franklin Mts.

(nasa.utep.edu/chih/theland/ landscape/frankmts6.jpg)

Horst & Grabens

Horsts and grabens are large blocks of land that have either been uplifted or dropped due to direct plate interaction.

Horst - section of land lifted up near a divergent plate
Graben - section of dropped land near a divergent plate

(geography.sierra.cc.ca.us/ .../graben_horst.jpg)

 

 

Last modified: March 04, 2003