VISCOSITY: A liquid's resistance to flow.

"A viscometer is somthing I will need for my project here is an excerpt from a brochuer to explain what it is: Laboratory viscometers are bench top instruments used in a laboratory setting. A variety of models are available depending on the viscosity range to be measured and display type. All instruments are supplied with spindles (for use in a 600 ml Low Form Griffin Beaker, LV series viscometers have four spindles, all other models have seven), Laboratory Stand and Carrying Case. (http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/)"



"An explanation on ATOC and its water recearch project: The basic idea of ATOC is simple. Sound travels faster in warm water than in cold water. The travel time of a sound signal from a source near California to a receiver near Alaska, for example, will decrease if the intervening ocean warms up, and will increase if the ocean cools down. The travel time is a direct measure of the average temperature between the source and receiver. The information obtained is similar to that which is obtained for the atmosphere by averaging temperature data from the many thousands of land-based weather stations that exist. By measuring the travel times ofThe concept of temperature is as fundamental a physical concept as the three fundamental quantities of mechanics - mass, length, and time. Through the study of such practical problems as how to make a highly efficient steam engine, fundamental physical theories emerge, including the concepts of the quantum theory and the two laws of thermodynamics. The second law, with its irreversibility requirement, predicts an inevitable evolution from other forms of energy into heat. It is the second law alone that provides an "arrow" for theconcept of time."

"ATOC is composed of two complementary environmental initiatives. ATOC's first goal is to gather information about temperatures in the ocean in order to verify existing climate models. The technique, of sending sound across entire oceans, is expected to yield extremely valuable data, in both detail and scope Two types of receivers are being utilized, special ATOC-designedreceivers, and existing U.S. Navy seabed receivers, thereby increasing the network of receiving sites and transitioning existing defense technology for environmental purposes. This system takes advantage of the "sound channel" or Sound Frequency and Ranging (SOFAR) channel, an acoustic wave guide deep within the ocean that carries sounds over very long distances. Previous experiments have shown the feasibility of measuring ocean temperature by transmitting signals between sources and receivers separated by 1,000 - 2,000 km. ATOC is designed to demonstrate that acoustic thermometry can be used to determine ocean climate variability by extending the range in order to monitor ocean temperature over the entire North Pacific. Receiving stations use advanced digital processing techniques, similar to those used in retrieving data from deep space probes, to detect the source signals after they have traveled over long distances and are otherwise enveloped in the normal (ambient) noise of the ocean. ATOC is intended to observe the ocean on the large scale necessary to study climate -- 3,000 to 10,000 km -- so that modelers will be able to both test existing models, and use the same models or modifed models to make climate predictions. By testing and improving climate models now, ATOC can make progress toward greenhouse predictions later. (http://atoc.ucsd.edu/summarypg.html)"



"An explanation of temperature which is a variable in my experement: In a qualitative manner, we can describe the temperature of an object as that which determines the sensation of warmth or coldness felt from contact with it. It is easy to demonstrate that when two objects are placed together (physicists say when they are put in thermal contact), the hotter object cools while the cooler object becomes warmer until a point is reached after which no more change occurs, and to our senses, they feel the same degree of warmth or coolness. When the thermal changes have stopped, we say that the two objects (physicists define them more rigorously as systems) are in thermal equilibrium . We can then define the temperature of the system by saying that the temperature is that quantity which is the same for both systems when they are in thermal equilibrium. If we experiment further with more than two systems, we find that many systems can be brought into thermal equilibrium with each other; thermal equilibrium does not depend on the kind of object used. Put more precisely, if two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other, and they all have the same temperature regardless of the kind of systems they are. The statement in italics, called the zeroth law of thermodynamics may be restated as follows: If three or more systems are in thermal contact with each other and all in equilibrium together, then any two taken separately are in equilibrium with one another. (quote from T. J. Quinn's monograph Temperature) Now one of the three systems could be an instrument calibrated to measure the temperature - i.e. a thermometer. When a calibrated thermometer is put in thermal contact with a system and reaches thermal equilibrium, we then have a quantitative measure of the temperature of the system. For example, a mercury-in-glass clinical thermometer is put under the tongue of a patient and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium in the patient's mouth - we then see by how much the silvery mercury has expanded in the stem and read the scale of the thermometer to find the patient's temperature. (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/tmp.html)"

COURTESY OF: http://bweinc.com/marshall/ti.html