1. Which of the following is most clearly supported by a majority of Americans?
[A] Equality of outcome
[C] Equality of opportunity
[E] equal results
2. A new education law passed the legislature requiring that fifteen percent of all free and reduced lunches be set aside to benefit only children of homeless people. This law establishes a(n)
[C] affirmative target.
[D] due diligence standard.
[E] percentage pro-rata share.
3. Which of the following best describes the concept of civil rights?
[A] Rights generally accorded all citizens
[B] Political rights of speech and assembly
[C] Rights extended to citizens from legislative action
[D] The guarantee of life, liberty, and property granted to all citizens
[E] Powers and privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected against arbitrary withdrawal by the government or individuals
4. The ______ Amendment provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude . . . shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
5. The civil right’s guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” is located in
[A] the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
[B] the Preamble to the Constitution.
[C] the Declaration of Independence.
[D] the Fourteenth Amendment.
[E] the Sixth Amendment.
6. The amendment permitting black American men to vote is the
[A] Eleventh Amendment.
[B] Twelfth Amendment.
[C] Fifteenth Amendment.
[D] Twenty-first Amendment.
[E] Twenty-third Amendment.
7. Black codes were
[A] laws enacted just prior to the Civil War, granting a limited number of black Americans the right to vote.
[B] laws enacted after the Civil War, expanding the freedoms of black Americans.
[C] laws enacted by former slave states to restrict the freedom of black Americans.
[D] all of these.
[E] none of these.
8. Supreme Court decisions immediately following the Civil War had what effect?
[A] Expanded the protections of freed slaves.
[B] Restricted the constitutional rights of black Americans.
[C] Limited the power of southern states.
[D] Aided in healing social class differences among whites and blacks.
[E] Guaranteed black Americans equal access to public accommodations.
9. The effect of the poll tax was to
[A] keep black Americans from voting.
[B] tie voting to property ownership.
[C] raise money to pay for elections.
[D] support preelection opinion polls.
[E] raise contributions for black candidates running for office.
10. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which involved segregated public accommodations, is noteworthy because it
[A] upheld the principles of the Fourteenth Amendment.
[B] applied the national supremacy clause to such cases.
[C] endorsed the separate but equal doctrine.
[D] stated that Congress had no power to pass legislation requiring open public accommodations.
[E] removed the barrier for denying entrance to blacks to public accommodations.
11. The NAACP’s plan for ending racial discrimination and segregation was to
[A] use electoral pressure.
[B] use pressure from the northern states.
[C] use economic boycotts.
[D] engage in violence.
[E] launch both legal challenges and lobbying campaigns.
12. In several cases that focused on graduate and professional education in the late 1930s and 1940s, the Supreme Court dealt with the separate but equal doctrine by
[A] ruling that segregated facilities are acceptable only if they are truly equal.
[B] ruling that blacks should be reimbursed for having to attend inferior professional schools.
[C] holding that qualified blacks should be admitted to white professional schools.
[D] arguing the inherent inequality of separate facilities.
[E] ruling that blacks were not entitled to separate but equal graduate educations.
13. The Gaines, Sweatt, and McLaurin cases all struck down the practice of segregation in education on the grounds that
[A] the Fourteenth Amendment was specifically designed to ensure educational opportunity.
[B] separate facilities were inherently unequal.
[C] the separate facilities provided for black Americans in these instances were obviously unequal in quality.
[D] segregation was a reasonable exercise of police power.
[E] too much government funding was required to support equal access.
14. Which President was responsible for desegregating the armed forces?
[A] Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
[B] Harry Truman.
[C] Lyndon Johnson.
[D] Dwight Eisenhower.
[E] Teddy Roosevelt.
15. In the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court mandated an end to
[A] discriminatory voting laws.
[B] all forms of racial discrimination.
[C] racial segregation in public schools.
[D] busing to achieve integration.
[E] unequal funding of education programs.
16. In Brown v. Board of Education II, the Supreme Court ordered that public school systems must desegregate
[A] “at the discretion of the local school district.”
[B] “without further ado.”
[D] “with all deliberate speed.”
[E] “or face closure.”
17. Implementation of the Brown decision
[A] required the states to make a wide range of alternative education arrangements, including paying tuition at private schools for some students.
[B] was largely a logistical problem because of segregated housing.
[C] placed a heavy burden on federal judges to dismantle what was a fundamental part of the social order.
[D] rendered all of the statements above true.
[E] caused many schools to face severe budget cuts in order to comply.
18. An event that was widely viewed as the beginning of the civil rights movement was the
[A] 1963 march on Washington.
[B] enrollment of James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.
[C] arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger.
[D] freedom rides to integrate bus stations throughout the South.
[E] Plessy v. Ferguson case.
19. A person following Martin Luther King’s urge to participate in civil disobedience would
[A] engage in felony criminal activity, resulting in his or her arrest.
[B] create riots in public government meetings.
[C] refuse to pay state income taxes until the state government complied with desegregation standards.
[D] engage in violation of “unjust laws” in a non-violent manner.
[E] attempt to cause public panic in large crowds.
20. Civil disobedience is
[A] the willful but nonviolent breach of unjust laws.
[B] the failure to fulfill a contractual agreement.
[C] engaging in actions that are likely to promote social change.
[D] engaging in actions that are likely to catalyze violent societal responses, such as riots.
[E] the lawful refusal to follow a court order.
21. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided for all of the following except
[A] equal access to public accommodations regardless of race, religion, or national origin.
[B] equal employment opportunities, regardless of race.
[C] withholding federal grants-in-aid from state programs that discriminated on the basis of race.
[D] elimination of the poll tax as a requirement for voting.
[E] strengthen voting rights legislation.
22. Which provision prevented the collection of money from individuals (primarily black Americans) in order to be eligible to vote in primary and general elections?
[A] The Poll Revenue Reduction Act
[B] The Suffrage Fee Act
[C] The Twenty-seventh Amendment
[D] The Equal Protection Act
[E] The Twenty-fourth Amendment
23. A college athletics department that prevents female basketball athletes from receiving scholarships as do male basketball athletes would lose federal financial aid assistance in what area, subject to what case?
[A] The entire college; Baake v. University of Southern California.
[B] The women’s studies program; Parks v. College of DuPage.
[C] The athletics department; Grove City College v. Bell.
[D] The academic scholarship department; Anthony v. University of Alabama.
[E] The financial aid office; Federal Department of Education v. Kennedy.
24. Which of the following best describes Congress and the Supreme Court on the issue of civil rights since the late 1980s?
[A] Congress has narrowed protection, and the Supreme Court has expanded it.
[B] Both institutions have worked in tandem to continue expanding civil rights.
[C] The institutions have worked together to close loopholes in the old law.
[D] Both institutions have consistently restricted civil rights.
[E] The Supreme Court has narrowed protection, and Congress has expanded it.
25. The effect of the 1991 Civil Rights Act was
[A] to increase costs to employers engaging in acts of discrimination.
[B] to reduce civil rights protections.
[C] to allow government to expand its enforcement of acts that were not clearly discriminatory.
[D] vetoed by President Bush.
[E] criminal penalties were made more severe for violators.
26. A group of people who were practicing civil disobedience in the early ‘60s but who became increasingly frustrated with their lack of accomplishment would probably have done what in the latter ‘60s?
[A] Abandoned its goals.
[B] Shifted their focus.
[C] Turned to elections as a tool.
[D] Encountered and increasingly used violence.
[E] Seen their earlier actions confirmed by favorable court rulings.
27. The United States was created on and expanded into territory once held by Native Americans through
[A] a series of treaties approved and honored by both sides.
[B] purely defensive reactions to Indian attacks on European territory.
[C] gradual assimilation of the two cultures.
[D] deception and the use of raw military power.
[E] Native American culture, which did not believe in protesting such action.
28. Which of the following best describes the legal status of Native Americans?
[A] They were granted full citizenship by the Fourteenth Amendment.
[B] Until granted U.S. citizenship in 1924, they were considered foreign nationals.
[C] They are currently not considered U.S. citizens and are dealt with through treaties.
[D] They have been considered white, and hence citizens, since 1776, but they have suffered de facto discrimination.
[E] They are still considered to be citizens of local tribes only.
29. An Indian claims commission was created in 1946
[A] to compensate Native Americans for land that had been taken from them.
[B] to hear criminal cases on the reservations.
[C] to settle disputes among various tribes.
[D] as part of an agreement designed to end the battle at Wounded Knee.
[E] to establish an entity for claims against Native Americans to be heard.
30. For Native Americans, the 1970s and 1980s brought
[A] reinforcement of Native culture.
[B] a continuing deterioration of conditions at an increased rate.
[C] loss of sovereign nation status.
[D] a substantial movement off the reservations and into cities.
[E] the return of some land and financial settlements for other losses.
31. Recently, Native American tribes have begun ambitious social and educational programs for their members largely because of
[A] legalized gambling operation proceeds.
[B] discovery of new, prosperous natural resources on tribal lands.
[C] alternative agricultural development on reservation land.
[D] better educational abilities of its average members.
[E] increased trade of tribal goods.
32. In the 1920s, Hispanic Americans were welcomed to the United States as a
[A] part of America’s Good Neighbor Policy.
[B] source of new talent and expertise for the practice of arid-zone agriculture.
[C] source of cheap labor.
[D] way to populate border areas of the Southwest.
[E] method to prevent overcrowding in certain areas.
33. The strike and boycott led by Cesar Chavez had the effect of
[A] insuring that farm workers would be people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds.
[B] attaining somewhat better pay, housing, and working conditions for farm workers.
[C] creating a very politically active Mexican community in the Southwest.
[D] dismantling the system of agricultural day labor.
[E] unemploying many Hispanics, many of whom returned to Mexico.
34. The National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators is a(n)
[A] political party.
[B] solid voting block.
[C] informal bipartisan group seeking to discuss and further issues of interest to Hispanic Americans.
[D] group of legislators primarily concerned with U.S. policy toward Spain and Latin America.
[E] interest group whose goal is to elect the next U.S. President.
35. The disabled rights movement stems from
[A] disabled World War I veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.
[B] people disabled as a result of birth defects.
[C] disabled Vietnam War veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.
[D] the disabled rights movement of the 1960s.
[E] disabled World War II veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.
36. The Americans with Disabilities Act
[A] guarantees people with disabilities access to employment, transportation, and public accommodations.
[B] covers people with AIDS, recovering alcoholics, and drug abusers.
[C] is deliberately vague about the meaning of the term “disability.”
[D] is all of these.
[E] is none of these.
37. The event that served as the catalyst for the gay liberation movement in the United States was
[A] the Montgomery bus boycott.
[B] the New York City St. Patrick’s Day Parade of 1984.
[C] the Stonewall Riots.
[D] the Watts Riot.
[E] the Gay Pride March.
38. Gays and lesbians do not enjoy any of the following civil rights protections except the
[A] ability to be employed by a public agency while being openly gay.
[B] ability to serve in the military while being openly gay.
[C] right to sign on to their partner’s health care plan.
[D] right to take full advantage of laws that allow citizens to pass along their estates to family members.
[E] protection from unlawful revocation of equal access rights.
39. The fundamental conflict that was at issue in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale was
[A] freedom versus order.
[B] freedom versus equality.
[C] order versus equality.
[D] privacy versus freedom of association.
[E] the independence of a privately-established group.
40. Jefferson’s view that women should be excluded from mixing in men’s business to prevent harm to women’s morals is an example of
[B] reverse discrimination.
[E] subtle equal access deprivation.
41. In seeking equal rights, women have had to overcome
[A] hostility toward them as the “weaker sex.”
[B] congressional refusal to take up the question of equal rights for women.
[C] their own stereotypical attitudes.
[D] constitutional language that specifically assigns women to an inferior legal position.
[E] widespread attitudes among men that women need to be protected.
42. Who of the following was one of the first women’s rights activists?
[A] Diane Joyce
[B] Phyllis Schlafly
[C] Christine Hefner
[D] Susan B. Anthony
[E] Eleanor Roosevelt
43. Which amendment to the Constitution guaranteed women the right to vote?
[A] Nineteenth, in 1920
[B] Twenty-sixth, in 1971
[C] Fifteenth, in 1870
[D] Twenty-Fourth, in 1964
[E] Eighteenth, in 1918.
44. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
[A] requires federal oversight of voting registration in predominantly African-American southern counties.
[B] forbids employment based upon the use of non-skill criteria.
[C] permits busing to achieve racial balance in schools.
[D] prohibits sex discrimination in federally aided education programs.
[E] prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
45. In United States v. Virginia (1996), the Supreme Court declared that
[A] a college or university may admit whomever it pleases.
[B] programs that discriminate on the basis of gender will be given the same special scrutiny as racially discriminatory programs.
[C] institutions of higher learning have an affirmative duty to give preference to women and minorities.
[D] all-male colleges are acceptable as long as there are equivalent women’s schools.
[E] states that deny out-of-state minority applicants will lose federal funding.
46. The failure of the Equal Rights Amendment illustrates the
[A] importance of presidential leadership if major legislation is involved.
[B] inherent social conservatism of state legislators.
[C] difficulty of amending the Constitution, especially when there is organized opposition.
[D] importance of strategy and planning for promoting change.
[E] economic importance of the impact of the constitutional amendments to states carrying them out.
47. Those who want an Equal Rights Amendment in spite of recent rulings and laws protecting equal rights claim that
[A] Congress is a sexist organization that has not and will not support women.
[B] federal laws and court rulings can be overturned in state courts.
[C] women deserve their own amendment because of past discrimination.
[D] women could lose their rights if the Supreme Court reversed its decisions and legislators repealed the statutes.
[E] the Constitution specifically protects all other groups except women.
48. Affirmative action is the
[A] commitment by the federal government to require state governments to eliminate all forms of discrimination within their boundaries.
[B] commitment first introduced in the California legislature to ensure equal employment opportunities for African Americans.
[C] commitment by a business, employer, school, or other public or private institution to expand opportunities for women, African and Hispanic Americans, and members of other minority groups.
[D] decision by a court in Hawaii to affirm the right of gays and lesbians to marry.
[E] specific allowance of a certain number of positions to applicants.
49. What is the major rationale for affirmative action?
[A] All hiring and promotion should result from objective tests and measures of job performance.
[B] To achieve racial equality, it is necessary only to remove de jure segregation.
[C] Racial criteria should never be used in school admission or employment decisions.
[D] Special consideration for racial minorities is necessary to overcome the effects of centuries of racial discrimination.
[E] Failure of previous court decisions to specifically address minimum economic needs.
50. People who feel that they were unfairly denied their right to admission, employment, or promotion because an affirmative action program placed someone of another race or sex ahead of them claim
[A] restraint of trade.
[B] reverse discrimination.
[D] unfair competition.
[E] unequal access.