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  • Asexual Reproduction: production of a new organism in which a single parent produces offspring that are identical to itself (clones).


  • Biology: the study of living things.


  • Cell: the smallest functional unit of life.
  • Compound Light Microscope: a microscope that allows light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image; specimens can viewed while living, if very small.
  • Controlled Experiment: a method of testing a hypothesis where one variable is changed at a time, all other variables should be kept the same for all groups.


  • Data: the information gathered from observations.


  • Electron Microscope: a microscope that uses a beam of electrons to produce images of a specimen; images are much more detailed than those from the light microscope; specimens can not be viewed while living. Two types of electron microscopes are used by scientists: the Transmission Electron Microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope.






  • Homeostasis: the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment.
  • Hypothesis: a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested.


  • Inference: a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.








  • Manipulated Variable: the variable in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed; also called the independent variable.
  • Metabolism: the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials.
  • Metric System: a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled to multiples of 10; also called the International System of Units (SI).
  • Microscope: devices that produce a magnified image of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye; scientists often use the light microscope and/or the electron microscope.




  • Observation: the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.






  • Reproduction: production of a new organism; can be sexual or asexual.
  • Responding Variable: the variable that is ovserved and that changes in response to the manipulated variable; also called the dependent variable.


  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): produces an image of an object by passing electrons in a narrow beam back and forth across the surface of a specimen producing a realistic 3D image of the surface.
  • Science: an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; can also be used to refer to teh body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process.
  • Sexual Reproduction: production of a new organism in which cells from two different parents unite to form the first cell of the new organism.
  • Spontaneous Generation: the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter.
  • Stimulus: a signal to which an organism responds (example: light, heat/cold, pain).


  • Theory: in science, theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and can be used to make accurate predictions about new situations.
  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM): produces an image of an object by bouncing a beam of electrons through a specimen to reveal the internal detail.














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