METAMORPHIC ROCKS

 

I. California K-6 standards for Metamorphic Rocks

II. Goals of This Module

III. Metamorphic Rock

IV. Names for Foliated Metamorphic Rocks

V. Names for Non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks

VI. Uses for Metamorphic Rocks

VII. Laboratory Exercises

VIII. Possible Essay Questions

IX. Practice Questions


I. California K-6 standards for metamorphic rocks -

  1. Kindergarten
    1. Earth Sciences Topics
      1. The Earth is composed of land, air, and water. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
        1. how to identify resources from the Earth that are used in everyday life, and that many resources can be conserved.

       

    2. Investigation and Experimentation
      1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
        1. observe common objects using the five senses.
        2. describe the properties of common objects.
        3. compare and sort common objects based on one physical attribute (including color, shape, texture, size, weight).
        4. communicate observations orally and in drawings.
  1. Grade 2
    1. Earth Sciences Topics
      1. Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities. As the basis for understanding this concept, students know:
        1. how to compare the physical properties of different kinds of rocks and that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals.
        2. rocks, water, plants and soil provide many resources including food, fuel, and building materials that humans use.

       

    2. Investigation and Experimentation
      1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content of the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
        1. compare and sort common objects based on two or more physical attributes (including color, shape, texture, size, weight).
  1. Grade 4
    1. Earth Sciences Topics
      1. The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
        1. how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle).
  1. Grade 6
    1. Resources
      1. Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
        1. different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and classify them as renewable or nonrenewable.

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II. Goals of this module -

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III. Metamorphic rock -

 

A rock that contains parallel- or sub-parallel-oriented mineral grains is said to be foliated

 

Foliation promotes cleavage in rocks (they break easily along parallel planes).

  • Mineral crystals increase in size -

 

A fine-grained or finely crystalline rock, given a long enough period of metamorphism, will become coarsely crystalline.

 

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IV. Names for foliated metamorphic rocks -

Crystals invisible = slate (metamorphosed shale)

Crystals easily visible and of uniform composition = schist

Crystals easily visible and the rock is banded in alternate dark and light layers = gneiss

 

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V. Names for metamorphic rocks that are not foliated -

Made of calcite = marble (metamorphosed limestone)

Made of quartz = quartzite (metamorphosed sandstone)

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VI. Uses for metamorphic rocks -

  • Slate is used to make roofing tiles and in earlier periods of our history was used as "blackboards" in classrooms. As a resource, slate is nonrenewable, but common. Man-made roofing tiles are a suitable substitute.

 

  • Marble is used as a building stone and as ornamental rock, such as for carving statues. As a resource, marble is nonrenewable, but common. Man-made building stones are a suitable substitute.

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VII. Laboratory exercises -

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