What exactly is cartography? The Glossary of the Mapping Sciences (ACSM/ASPRS/ASCE, 1994) gives us no less than four definitions. Cartography is "the art of expressing graphically, by maps, the known physical features of the Earth or of another celestial body," but it is also "the science, art and technology of making maps, together with the study of maps as scientific documents and works of art," "the theory and practice of making maps," and "the process of making maps." Ptolemy (the original, not the AAG Newsletter columnist) would have defined geography itself, not just cartography, as "applied map projections." It is obvious that becoming bogged down in definition is counter productive. Geography itself has wasted much energy in this inwardlooking debate, to the extent that I often joke that Geography can be defined as "that discipline which is obsessed with defining itself." Cartography has been less in need of a single definition because we have a clear single focus - the map. Yet none of the definitions mention that cartography is an accepted academic subject, and part of learning all the way from elementary school social studies "map skills" to the college curriculum and beyond. Few of the definitions stress this, though its implication is intriguing, that cartography IS what the body of people who call themselves cartographers DO.
So what do cartographers DO? They produce a staggering number of paper and digital maps for industry, commerce, government, and science. They teach and conduct research on "how to make better maps." They attend conferences, read newsletters, research papers, and books. But cartographers are also members of society, and part of an "informed electorate". What they haven't done much in the past is act as USERS of the maps they produce. I don't necessarily mean readers or interpreters, I mean users in the sense of advocates.
What got me thinking along these lines was the recent Dayton agreement that brokered a new, though as yet tentative, peace in the mess that is Bosnia and Herzegovina. I still remember thinking when the talks began, "why hold these critical talks on an airforce base in Ohio?" As the talks came to their summit, and the agreement was announced, the real reason became clear. The talks hinged upon, and were clearly influenced by, a large military computer mapping and visualization system loaded with cartographic detail about the region. Just as the three superpowers moved the nations of Europe around like chess pieces on large paper maps at Breton Woods in WWII, so the leaders of the ethnic groups of the former Yugoslavia sliced up their territory in a new virtual geographic and cartographic reality.
What a role for cartographers. Builders of lines in abstract cartographic space that can actually stop bullets! Agents of peace when all of the world's diplomacy has failed again and again. Dayton is only one small part of what I have called the "democratization of cartography." This process takes the tools, or at least the benefits, of mapping out of the hands of the "cartography" of the definitions above, and puts them into the hands of citizens of the real world. Outcomes then become solutions. The number of other potential uses boggle the mind. Disease, poverty, homelessness, crime, efficient use of resources, conservation, environmental preservation, the list is endless. Cartographers have tended to sit back and observe, to be benign objective scientists sifting, organizing, and representing information. Why?
Keith Clarke, CSG Chair
This year elections will be held for the CSG offices of Vice Chair, Academic Director, Student Director, and Secretary/Treasurer. The position descriptions and terms are given below, along with brief biographical sketches of the nominees. An election ballot is inserted in this newsletter.
Ballots must be received by the Chair of the Nominations Committee (Richard Groop, Department of Geography, 315 Natural Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1115) by February 15, 1996.
VICE CHAIR (1996-1997)
Nominees: Ute Dymon and Michael Peterson
The Vice Chair is in charge of the CSG Program Committee for the Annual Meeting of the AAG. After they have served a one year term as Vice Chair, they assume the position of Chair of the CSG the following year.
Ute J. Dymon is currently an Assistant Professor of Geography at Kent State University. After receiving her Ph.D. from Clark University in 1985, she held an initial appointment at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst where she stayed until the end of 1991. During the 1991 fall semester, she was on leave from the University of Massachusetts to work as a cartographer for the United Nations in New York. Her research interests are in the area of map use and how users extract information from maps. She recently focused her research from environmental maps to hazards, risk, and evacuation mapping. She has published articles in The American Cartographer, Cartographica, Cartographic Perspectives, Geoforum, Disaster, Risk, and numerous conference proceedings. She was co-editor of An Atlas of Massachusetts River Systems: Environmental Designs for the Future and a newsletter for the Massachusetts Geographic Alliance. She has been a long-standing member of the CSG and held the office of Academic Director from 1992 to 1994. In addition, she is a member of the U.S. National Committee for the ICA and will serve on the Board of Directors for the ACA until April, 1996.
Michael P. Peterson is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Geography/Geology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. He received his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin-River Falls (1976), his M.A. from Boston University (1978) and Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo (1982). He was a Post-Doctoral Assistant at the University of Zurich, Switzerland in 1981-82 and subsequently joined the faculty at the University of Nebraska - Omaha in 1982 where he has taught courses in cartography, computer mapping, remote sensing and geographic information systems. Dr. Peterson served as Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle in 1985, a Fulbright Fellow at the Free University Berlin, Germany in 1990-91, and Visiting Associate Professor at the University of HawaiiManoa in 1995. He is currently Vice-President of the North American Cartographic Information Society and a member of the Editorial Board of Cartographic Perspectives and The Professional Geographer. His publications include: An Evaluation of Unclassed Choropleth Mapping, Evaluating a Map's Image, Mentale Bilder in der Kartographischen Kommunikation (in German), The Mental Image in Cartographic Communication, Interactive Cartographic Animation and Cognitive Issues in Cartographic Visualization. His book, Interactive and Animated Cartography, was recently published by Prentice-Hall.
ACADEMIC DIRECTOR (1996-1998)
Nominees: Gregory Chu and Scott Freundschuh
In the first year of office, the Academic Director acts as the liaison to ACA, NACIS and the IMTA. The second year, the Academic Director chairs the Awards Committee.
Gregory Chu is a native of Hong Kong, received his B.Sc. degree in Geography at the Univ. of Wisconsin-La Crosse in 1970, his M.S. degree in Geography at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison in 1974, and his Ph.D. degree at the Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa in Geography with specialization in cartography and remote sensing. He was Director of the Cartography Lab and Instructor in the Department of Geography at the University of Kansas (1973-74), Head of the Cartographic Unit at the East-West Center in Honolulu (1974-81), Director of the Cartography Lab and Graduate Faculty in the Dept. of Geography at the University of Minnesota (1981- 1993), and is now Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography/Earth Science at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (1993- present). He has served as an United Nations Cartographic Advisor to the Central Bureau of Statistics for the Government of Indonesia, and also several terms in the Commissions on Population Cartography at the International Cartographic Association (ICA).
Scott Freundschuh is an Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota in Duluth. He joined the faculty in 1994 and teaches courses in cartography and geographic information systems. Previous to this appointment, he was an Assistant Professor at Memorial University in Newfoundland, Canada and a Post-doctoral Research Associate with the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis at the University of Maine. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in Geography from the State University of New York at Buffalo. Scott has been a member of the CSG since 1986, actively organizing and chairing a variety of CSG sponsored and co-sponsored special sessions over the past 7 years. He was the Student Director of the CSG in 1989-90, chairing the committee that formulated the CSG's current Master's Thesis Research Grant Program. As Student Director, he also served as a judge for the CSG Student Paper Competition and the NGS Scholarship. Scott's research interests include a wide range of topics concerning maps and spatial knowledge acquisition in children and adults. He has conducted research exploring spatial knowledge acquired from maps vs. the environment, from maps vs. narrative, and the influence that pattern or structure of the environment has on resulting spatial knowledge. He is currently conducting a study with Professor Mark Blades from the University of Sheffield funded with a grant from the University of Minnesota Foundation on Children and Adult's Understanding and Use of Locatives. He has published papers in Cartographica, The Cartographic Journal, and Geographical Systems, as well as refereed papers in Cognitive Aspects of Human Computer Interaction for Geographic Information Systems (Kluwer Academic Press), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS and Theories, and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space (Springer-Verlag). At the University of Minnesota in Duluth, Scott is the Director of the geography department's GIS and Cartographic Analysis Lab. Currently, the lab is beginning a collaborative project with The Hartley Nature Interpretive Center in Duluth creating a multimedia database with interactive maps of the nature preserve linked to photographs, text and video clips of native habitats in the park.
STUDENT DIRECTOR (1994-1995)
Nominees: David Howard and Julio Rivera
The Student Director is a member of the Awards Committee.
David Howard is a doctoral student at The Pennsylvania State University, focusing on cartographic visualization. He earned a B.A. in Geography and a B.S. in Mathematics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1992) and an M.S. in Geography from The Pennsylvania State University (1994) where his thesis was titled "A Framework for Exploring Bivariate Maps." As a graduate student at Penn State, Mr. Howard has been and is currently serving as a teaching assistant for introductory cartography. He also performed geographical and statistical analyses for two years in the Penn State Office of Marketing Research. In 1993, he worked with his advisor Alan MacEachren and a team of other graduate students to create a cartographic visualization system that won first place in the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis Visualization of Data Quality Challenge. He won Second Place in the Cartography Specialty Group Student Paper Competition in 1995 for the paper "Using Color Choropleth Maps to Judge Correlation" and later won the E. Willard Miller Award in Geography for a revision of the same paper. In 1994, Mr. Howard won Honorable Mention in the 1994 CSG Student Paper Competition. Mr. Howard has also presented papers at several meetings including the AAG Annual Meeting, the NACIS Annual Convention and the GIS/LIS Annual Meeting. He has two publications in proceedings and is currently working on two papers for publication in cartographic journals. The first is a collaboration with his advisor on a paper about user interface design for geographic visualization and the second is a paper about color schemes for bivariate maps.
Julio Rivera is a Ph.D. candidate in Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is also an instructor of cartography and environmental problems at UW-Milwaukee and at UW-Whitewater. In January, he will begin a fellowship to complete his dissertation entitled "Cartographic Interpretation: Differences Based On Epistemological Beliefs And Expertise". His research interests include: the influence of adult level cognition on map interpretation; the map as a rhetorical device in the media; and issues regarding geography in higher education. He received a BA in Journalism and Theology from Marquette University and an MA in Higher Education and Student Affairs from The Ohio State University. His paper, entitled "Differences in Epistemological Beliefs and Map Interpretation", won the NACIS student paper competition in 1993, and his paper entitled "Adult Cognition and Cartographic Interpretation" received second place in the 1994 student paper competition of the AAG Cartography Specialty Group. Prior to his doctoral studies, he worked as a freelance writer and university administrator at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, The Ohio State University and Marquette University.
Nominee: Ann Goulette
The Secretary/Treasurer runs the CSG Central Office by answering correspondence, taking the minutes at meetings and monitoring finances for the group. The Secretary/Treasurer also edits the newsletter.
Ann Goulette currently manages the Geographic Programs group of Intergraph Corporation's Washington Federal Systems Division in Reston, Virginia. Her staff of geographers and computer programmers provide software development and maintenance, database design, system and production support, and GIS and other software implementation services to a number of Government and private industry customers. She received a B.S. in Psychology (1978) and M.A. in Geography (1987) from Michigan State University. From 1984-90, she was a cartographer at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, where she provided cartographic technical assistance to foreign countries through the International Statistical Program Center and worked on projects for the automated production of maps for the 1990 Decennial Census and several atlases. She has published articles in The American Cartographer and AutoCarto Proceedings. She is a former Non-Academic Director of the CSG and the current Secretary/Treasurer and Newsletter Editor.
Preliminary Charlotte Workshop Program
The Department of Geography at Michigan State University is embarking upon a major expansion of personnel and resources in basic science digital remote sensing, geographic information systems, and environmental research and teaching. Over the next few years the Department and University expect to invest considerable resources to complement and reinforce the University's collective assets in these areas. The "Remote Sensing Initiative" will be housed in the Geography Department but will attempt to integrate research and teaching across departmental and college boundaries. External funding of scholarship in the remote sensing/GIS arena with applications to environmental change is a primary goal. This year, the Department hopes to add a senior faculty member who will help build this initiative. Several other entry-level faculty positions will be added in the next few years, as well as post-doctoral and graduate positions. Additional funding for research and instructional equipment also will be available. The initiative will be an integral part of the Geography Department which includes strengths in cartography/GIS, physical, human/en- vironment, and economic geography as well as professional programs in landscape architecture and urban planning. Facilities include a campus-wide Remote Sensing, GIS and Cartography Center and a variety of computer facilities operated by the Department and the University.
The University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) was opened in Fall 1994, as the first new university in Canada in 25 years. The 'frontier' atmosphere both in terms of a new university and the northern location are particularly exciting in the general fields of cartography and GIS. The university has programmes within faculties rather than departments, such that Cartography and GIS are taught within the Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (NRES) that combines the five programmes of Geography, Forestry, Biology, Environmental Studies and Resource Recreation Tourism. There are three scheduled courses in the 'geo-spatial techniques'.
The first course is an introductory course has been recently renamed 'Spatial Data Techniques' (from Cartography) to reflect the range of associated tools available in the digital era, including map compilation and design, geodesy and photogrammetry, aerial photography and image processing, global positioning systems and an introduction to GIS techniques. This reflects more the expanded fields now included in cartography rather than its subjugation as mirrored in the most recent version of Elements of Cartography by Robinson et al.
The second course is the mainstream GIS course, which assumes students have the first course under their belt. Hence many topics often discussed in a GIS course such as map projections, design, and remote sensing basics are already covered. The differences between GIS and Cartography are stressed and files converted between systems to emphasise this.
The third course is an 'advanced GIS' course that deals mostly with remote sensing and the interface between image processing, cartography and GIS. The sequence of three courses follows the traditional cartography, GIS, remote sensing sub-fields, but stresses their digital interweaving.
In addition to these three formal courses, students may take up to two more 'directed studies' that can be aimed at individual areas of interest or exposure to specific software programs. Current projects include glacier mapping and change detection using image processing, digital elevation modelling, project map production and data integration using MicroStation.
UNBC has a graduate program with over 40 masters students in NRES and a PH.D program on-line. A substantial proportion of these students have map production and GIS data processing as a main component of their graduate work, utilising the GIS Lab, which houses 20 Silicon Graphics workstations and associated input and output peripherals.
For further information about cartography/GIS/remote sensing at UNBC, please contact Roger Wheate, email: email@example.com or view the UNBC home page at http://quarles.unbc.edu and the Natural Resources Home Page (in 1996) http://quarles.unbc.edu/nres/nres.htm.
Indiana, Terre Haute, 47809. Indiana State University.
Assistant Professor. Tenure-track appointment beginning August 1996. Ph.D. required at time of appointment. The Department of Geography, Geology, and Anthropology invites applicants for a position in GIS/CARTOGRAPHY. A strong commitment to undergraduate and graduate (MA and PhD) teaching within the realm of spatial data display and analysis is essential. Teaching responsibilities will include introductory cartography and advanced courses in GIS applications and cartography. The successful candidate is expected to establish an active research program that compliments our Department's existing faculty and activities. Applications should contain a statement of teaching and research interests, curriculum vitae, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three references along with a statement of US citizenship or eligibility for US employment. Indiana State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Review of applications will begin January 29, 1996. Apply to: Susan M. Berta, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Geography, Geology, and Anthropology. Voice: (812) 237-2444. Fax: (812) 237-8029. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) was incorrectly called Earth Systems Research Institute in the list of cartographic award sponsors distributed with this newsletter. Apologies for any confusion this may have caused.
Announcement of 1995-96 Award Applications
The Cartography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers is pleased to announce the 1995-96 Master's Thesis Research Grants. These grants are available to masters students working on cartographic research and who are enrolled in a geography degree program. Grants are available up to a maximum of $300 and may be used for items necessary and relevant to research such as travel, materials, equipment, and human subject fees. Deadlines for applications are November 1st, March 15th, and June 1st.
Fundable Research Fundable research must be cartographic in nature. Cartography must be the central focus of the research, and not merely a tool used in support of some other research.
Review of Proposals Research proposals will be judged based upon (1) their originality, (2) their research design or plan of work, and (3) their budget and its justification. Proposals are reviewed in a nonblind process by a committee of three people selected by the NonAcademic Director in consultation with the CSG Chair.
Date of Awards Awards will be made two months after the review date for which the proposal was submitted.
Materials Required for Submission
Application Form Fill out the application form completely. (Application forms may be obtained from the Non-Academic Director.) Note that the applicant and the advisor are jointly responsible for the accuracy and validity of all information on the application. Be sure to complete the budget and justification on the back of the application form. List the requested items from highest to lowest priority and include price quotations for these items. Below, provide a brief justification of why the items you are requesting are necessary to your thesis. Finally, state whether you will accept partial funding should the entire amount requested not be granted.
Description of the Research Plan A description of your research plan is also required. Place your name and the title of your thesis at the top of the first page. State the research objectives and the specific aims of the research. Describe concisely the methods for achieving these goals. The research plan should not exceed three pages. Please note that human subject clearance must be obtained before grant money can be awarded, if the research involves human subjects.
All applications must be typewritten or completed on a word processor. Incomplete applications will not be considered. Applications must be received by the deadline in order to be considered for funding.
Submit the original signed application form and research plan along with two copies to: Timothy Carter, Non-Academic Director, CSG The H.M. Gousha Company P.O. Box 98 29 Highway 87 Comfort, TX 78013-0098 Phone: (210) 995-3217 Fax: (210) 995-3217 e-mail: HMGousha@aol.com
January 21-25. Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Contact: NCGIA Conference Secretariat, c/o Geographic Research, 3611 Ellison Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. (805) 893-8224.
March 15. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
March 25-28. AM/FM International Annual Conference XIX, Seattle, Washington. Contact: AM/FM International, 14456 E. Evans Ave., Aurora, CO 80014. (303) 337-0513.
April 9-13. AAG Annual Meeting, Charlotte, North Carolina. Contact: AAG, 1710 Sixteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20009. (202) 234-1450.
April 22-25. ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention, Baltimore, Maryland. Contact: ACSM, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. (301) 493-0200.
June 1. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
June 12-16. Canadian Cartographic Association 1996 Annual Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Contact: Shelley Laskin, (416) 481-9513.
September 17-21. International Map Trade Association 16th Annual Conference and Trade Show, Denver, Colorado. Contact: IMTA, P.O. Box 1789, Kankakee, IL 60901. (815) 939-4627.
November 1. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
November 17-21. GIS/LIS '96 Annual Conference and Exposition and ACSM/ASPRS Fall Convention, Denver, Colorado. Contact: ACSM, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. (301) 493-0200.
March 15. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
April 1-5. AAG Annual Meeting, Fort Worth, Texas. Contact: AAG, 1710 Sixteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20009. (202) 234-1450.
June 1. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
November 1. CSG Master's Thesis Grant deadline (see this issue for details).
The Cartography Specialty Group has established a World Wide Web home page, which will include a copy of the CSG newsletter. The home page can be accessed at: http://www.csun.edu/~hfgeg003/csg/.
If you would like to save the CSG postage and receive your newsletter through the home page, send an email with the subject "Home Page Newsletter" to Ann Goulette at email@example.com. Please include your name, email address and zip code in the message. You will receive an email notice when the newsletter is added to the site. Please check that you can access the site before sending your request.
Please submit articles for the Spring, 1996 issue of the Cartography Specialty Group newsletter by March 1, 1996 to:
Ann Goulette Intergraph Corporation 2051 Mercator Drive Reston, VA 22091 (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The CSG receives its mailing labels from AAG Headquarters. Changes or corrections to the mailing list should be sent to:
AAG 1710 Sixteenth Street, NW Washington, DC 20009-3198
Dr. Keith Clarke
Department of Geology and Geography Hunter College-CUNY
695 Park Avenue New York, NY 10021
Vice Chair (1995-1996)
Dr. Eugene Turner
Department of Geography
California State University
Northridge, CA 91330
2051 Mercator Drive Reston, VA 22091
Academic Director (1994-1996)
Dr. Cynthia Brewer
Department of Geography Pennsylvania State University
302 Walker Building
University Park, PA 16802-5011
Academic Director (1995-1997)
Dr. Mark Kumler
Department of Geography
University of Colorado-Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309
Non-Academic Director (1995-1997)
The H.M. Gousha Company
P.O. Box 98 29 Highway 87
Comfort, TX 78013
(210) 995-3317 Ext. 224
Student Director (1995-1996)
Department of Geosciences
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331
Past Chair (1995-1996)
Dr. Richard Groop
Department of Geography Michigan State University
E. Lansing, MI 48824-1115