Volume 18, No. 1   Fall, 1997


 Words From the Chair

I hope you all had a successful and relaxing summer before starting the busy and often hectic schedule of the school year.  I myself have been active by attending and participating in the International Cartographic Association conference (ICA) in Stockholm, and in August, I attended the Canadian Cartographic Association meeting in St. John's, Newfoundland.  At both meetings, many of us had an opportunity to chat with colleagues and friends we seem only to meet at these conferences.

While some of us had a great time, Scott Freudschuh, our acting Vice-Chair, has been active in organizing sessions for the Boston meeting in the spring.  Thanks, Scott, for a job well done and for keeping us inspired to do more.
I hope you all encourage your students to actively participate in the 1998 student honors competition and/or to present a poster this year.  In addition, introduce them to the specialty group.  Student membership in the Cartography Specialty Group is still a good deal.

Mark Monmonier and Bob McMaster volunteered to be the co-authors in writing the chapter on Cartography in "Geography at the Dawn of the 21Century".  We are all indebted to Mark and Bob for taking on this task.  My sincere thanks to both of you.

Another outstanding team working together are Cindy Brewer and Joel Morrison who are preparing the State of the Art in Cartography lecture for the Boston AAG meeting.  Thanks for your joint effort.

Ann Goulette, our very fine newsletter editor, is planning to step down from this position at the Boston AAG Conference.  She has done a remarkable job in getting this newsletter out on time and in keeping the Board on track.  Ann, in the name of the CSG, I extend hearty thanks to you for the endless hours you put into the task.  Your efforts will be missed.  Ann is planning to run for re-election as secretary, for which I am very grateful.  If you are interested in serving as our next newspaper editor, please contact me or anyone on the Board.

May you all have a satisfying and excellent school year.  Hope to see you in Boston.

Ute J. Dymon
CSG Chair

Call For Nominations

The 1997-98 Cartography Speciality Group Nominations Committee requests suggested nominees for the following offices up for election for service begining at the AAG Annual Meeting in 1998:

* Vice-Chair (1998-1999) (moves to Chair, 1999-2000)
* Secretary/Treasurer (1998-2000)
* Academic Director (1998-2000)
* Student Director (1998-1999)

Continuing officers for the coming year include Ute Dymon, who will be Past Chair (1997-98); Jeremy Crampton, Academic Director (1997-1999); and Anna Williams, Non-academic Director (1997-1999).

Please contact Eugene Turner by November 15, 1997 to suggest possible candidates.

Eugene Turner (CSG Nominations Chairman)
Department of Geography
California State University
Northridge, CA  91330
Phone: (818) 677-3532
E-mail: eugene.turner@csun.edu

On-Demand Map Printing

By R. Kent Stewart
3M Commercial Graphics Division

When looking at the geospatial information industry and surveying unmet needs, one of the inescapable conclusions is that by applying state-of-the-art large format imaging techniques and modern non-impact printing technologies and hardware, the potential to print maps on an on-demand basis can now be realized.  By selecting and applying the best of the currently available technologies, it is possible to print as few as one map or as many as a few hundred  maps without incurring the expense or production delays of normal lithographic printing.

For a time, 3M has been working with several government agencies toward optimizing the use of large format, non-impact printing technology to map printing.  Several enabling technologies have been developed and applied to make this capability useable/useful:

* print algorithms which are optimized for map printing

* selection of hardware to best handle large file sizes and print large format images with the best possible quality

* development of materials which are durable and water resistant

* incorporation of selected commercial software packages to allow GIS and map editing applications

3M has configured large, highly productive systems capable of producing up to 60 six square foot ( 2 X 3 foot) maps each hour.  Conversely, smaller systems have also been configured which produce only a few maps each hour but still retain all the map editing capability and printed map quality of the larger system.  Both of these variants use a powerful UNIX workstation, the Sun Ultra Model 2200, to achieve maximum flexibility and productivity.  These 64-bit computer systems, which are currently running at 250 MHz, allow for dual processors and incorporate a very high speed input/output architecture to allow large data sets to be moved and processed efficiently.  The next version of the system, now under development, will use a high-end Pentium ' based PC in place of the workstation.  As might be imagined, the challenges of this change are myriad.

The key to the viability of map printing on-demand is the availability of suitable map data. Because of the paucity of digital files from which to print, many originals must be scanned to generate the printer file.  Systems configurations can incorporate a scanner to produce digital files from already printed maps.  As new maps are created digitally, the problem of reproducing them will be addressed more easily, obviating the necessity to scan them to create digital files.

A great deal of effort and testing has been accomplished in verifying the accuracy and precision of on-demand map images.  In general, images that are scanned and printed using either electrostatic printing processes or thermal inkjet processes are completely usable as an alternative to lithographed maps.  Optimum reproduction is achieved by using a drum-type scanner, though many of the current generation "sheet feed" scanner designs are approaching the same reproduction quality.  Printers which print using a "single pass" design are preferred because of their better accuracy and registration.  It is important to note that when the correct software is used, the "fit" can usually be adjusted to compensate completely for the small deficiencies of  the hardware.

3M's approach to the actual printing differentiates us from others doing the same thing.  In order to produce the best quality images and retain the best possible productivity, we have selected high productivity hardware and coupled it with highly productive 3M proprietary (3M Scotchprint Graphic Maker Software) software.  Image enhancement and special screening techniques are required to produce the highest quality result.  3M uses special screening techniques to perform edge detail enhancement, edge boundary improvement, and to sharpen text.

Paper maps may be scanned at an optimum resolution for the printing process selected as red/green/blue pixels (8 bits per color, 256 color levels).  The resultant image data is stored as a TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) file and can be edited using a variety of commercial map editing packages.  Digital raster data when imported into the system can be TIFF, NITF, CADRG, ADRG, GEO-SPOT, Landsat, JPEG/JFIF, ERDAS, and other popular raster formats.  Vector formats supported include Encapsulated Postscript (EPS), VPF, DLG, DFX, and ARC/INFO.

Computer systems for editing and converting raster images require substantial memory and processing power.  The family of map production systems have very large memory capacities.  A functional minimum is at least 64 Megabytes and for really efficient editing of raster map data, greater than 300 Megabytes is advisable.  A topographic map with dimensions of 24 X 36 inches, scanned at 400 pixels per inch, contains approximately 395 Megabytes of raster data.  The larger the map, the greater its file size.

High-quality printed output requires specialized color conversion to achieve color matching to correct for printer, materials, and scanner shortcomings.  3M uses a closed-loop color calibration system that translates the RGB (red, green, blue) data from the scanner to the CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) of the printer.  Calibration targets are printed using the selected printer and are scanned into the system with the selected scanner.  Scanned RGB pattern data is used to create a calibration table for a scanner/printer/materials combination.  In generating this RGB to CMYK conversion table, a high level of GCR (Grey Component Replacement) is used along with special color gamut clipping techniques to provide color fidelity and stable printing.

For more information, please contact R. Kent Stewart, 3M Commercial Graphics Division, in Washington, DC at 202-331-6981.

Microsoft Cartographic Education Program

Microsoft Corporation is developing an educational program to help students understand and assess the quality of computer generated maps.  Microsoft will donate software and a hands-on classroom lesson.  The initial thrust of this program is for college level geography students.  Eventually, the program will be available to students at any level.

Geographic information processing is an important component of today's geography education.  "It is critical for those who rely on maps to know how to assess the quality of those maps",  said Dr. David Lanter, a former professor and geographic data quality assurance researcher, whose team assures the quality of Microsoft's map products.

Working with Nicholas Chrisman of the University of Washington, Howard Veregin of the University of Minnesota, and a team of leading geography educators and map error experts, Dr. Lanter is developing an online map quality assessment lesson plan.

The week-long instruction will offer students the experience of being part of a map quality assurance team.  "This is a true win-win opportunity," said Dr. Lanter. "Microsoft will help students gain an understanding of map errors and practical skills in map proof reading.  And students will gain the opportunity to contribute to improving the quality of map products."

If you are interested in more information or participating in Microsoft's map quality assessment lesson, contact Amy Harmala at a-amyha@microsoft. com.

Preliminary Boston Meeting Information

Scott Freundshuh, CSG Vice Chair and Annual Meeting Program Co-ordinator reports a full slate of interesting cartographic sessions planned for the Boston meeting.  The organizers and topics are listed below:

* Bob McMaster at the University of Minnesota is organizing one (or more) paper sessions at the Boston AAG meeting in memory of George Jenks.  George's students, and others who are interested, are encouraged to participate.  Contact Bob at mcmaster@atlas.socsci.umn.edu

* Trudy Suchan, Pennsylvania State University, is organizing a session comprised of current research using qualitative methods/reasoning in cartography and GIS research.  Contact Trudy at tas8@psu.edu

* Judith Tyner is organizing a session on women in cartography.  Contact Judith at jztyner@csulb.edu

* Aileen Buckley and John Krygier are organizing a session on visualization and cartography .  Aileen co-organized two hugely successful sessions at the Fort Worth meetings on the same topic.  The session will be co-sponsored by the GIS Specialty Group.  Contact Aileen at aileen@heart.cor.epa.gov  or John at jkrygier@iroquois-gw.geog.buffalo.edu

* Paul Anderson is interested in organizing a session on Virtual Instruction of Cartography to be co-sponsored with the CSG and the Microcomputer SG.  Contact Paul at psanders@ilstu.edu

* Scott  Freundshuh is organizing a session on spatial cognition for the AAG meeting.  This session will be co-organized by the CSG and the Environmental Perception and Behavioral Geography SG.  Contact Scott at sfreunds@d.umn.edu

NACIS Web Site

The North American Cartographic Information Society now has its own website that CSG members are welcome to visit.  The site has information about the October NACIS conference in Lexington, Kentucky, the Board of Directors election slate, as well as general information about NACIS and how to join.  Please visit the site at www.nacis.org

Jeremy Crampton
CSG Academic Director

New Book Announcement

The Memorial University of Newfoundland Cartographic Laboratory has just published A Guide to Map Design and Production Using CorelDRAW! 6.  The table of contents and a brief chapter-by-chapter description may be seen at:


For ordering information, contact Clifford H. Wood at chwood@ morgan.ucs.mun.ca;  (709) 737-8988;  fax (709) 737-3119

Cartographic Danger Zones!

CSG member Mark Monmonier has provided maps for a very interesting web site.  He has mapped the ten riskiest places in America on http://www.cnn.com /EARTH/9708/12/dangerous. america.ap/

Student Award Opportunities

The CSG offers several student award and grant opportunities.  Students are highly encouraged to take advantage of these programs.  The programs provide excellent ways to display and discuss student research activities and the prize money can be used to defray some of the costs of research and travel to the AAG Annual Meeting.  Some of the highlights of these awards (including submission deadlines) follow:


The CSG sponsors three awards:  a student paper competition, Master's Thesis grants and the National Geographic Society Award in Cartography.  In addition this year, the CSG will co-sponsor a poster session contest with the GIS and Remote Sensing Specialty Groups.  Each of these has a cash prize, and all awards are announced at the AAG Annual Meeting.

CSG Student Honors Paper Competition

Each year, the CSG sponsors a Student Honors Paper Competition for papers presented at the AAG Annual Meeting.  The top five finalists each receive $300 for travel expenses to the meeting.  Additionally, prizes of $100 for the first place paper and $50 for the second place paper are awarded.  Winners are announced at the Awards Banquet and the CSG Business Meeting during the conference.  The competition is open to students at all academic levels.  This year, abstracts are due September 3, 1997.

CSG Master's Thesis Research Grants

The CSG sponsors Master's Thesis Research Grants to help Master's candidates offset expenses related to their thesis research.  These awards are based on review of research proposals.  In the past, the grant money has been used to buy data sets, produce maps, and pay research subjects for participating in design experiments.  Applications are reviewed three times a year:  November 1st, March 15th, and June 15th.  Grants are awarded after the proposals have been reviewed.  Complete instructions for submitting proposals are described in the newsletter.

National Geographic Society Award in Cartography

In addition to the CSG paper competition and the thesis grants, the CSG co-sponsors the National Geographic Society Award in Cartography.  This award recognizes student achievement in the art, science, and technology of mapping and seeks to encourage student research and graduate study in cartography.  This award is presented based on academic achievement and a statement of the student's research goals and a sample of their cartographic work.  The National Geographic Society has traditionally awarded $1,000 to the winning student.  The deadline for this award will be around the end of February.  For more information about this award, contact David Miller, Cartographic Division, National Geographic Society, 1145 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC  20036-4688.

IMTA Meets in DC

The International Map Trade Association will hold its 17th Annual Conference and Trade Show in Washington, DC on September 21-25.

Four days of presentation sessions will be held including topics such as Maps On-Line, GPS, Government Map Agency Review, issues in map sales, and technological advances in mapping.  The IMTA Trade Show consists of over 100 vendors of all aspects of map production and marketing. Several receptions and tours are scheduled also.

Tours include the Treasures of the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division, the National Mapping Division of the United States Geological Survey, and the Offices of Coast Survey and Aeronautical Charting and Cartography at NOAA's National Ocean Service.  The National Geodetic Survey is on the NOAA tour also.



September 11-14. 34th Annual Symposium and Map Curator's Group Workshop, University of Leicester, England.  Contact: David Fairbairn, Department of Geomatics, University of Newcastle, NEWCASTLE NE1 7RU ENGLAND; Email: Dave.Fairbairn.ncl.ac.uk

September 21-25. International Map Trade Association 17th Conference and Trade Show, Washington, DC.  Contact: IMTA, (815) 939-4627.

October 1-4.  North American Cartographic Information Society XVII Annual Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky.  Contact: NACIS, (800) 558-8993.

October 28-30.  GIS/LIS '97, Cincinnati, Ohio.  Contact: GIS/LIS Registrar, ACSM, (301) 493-0200.


February 6-7.  International Map Trade Association Fifth Annual European Conference, Brugge, Belgium.  Contact: Sue Crainidge IMTA European Division, 5 Spinacre, Becton Lane, Barton on Sea, Hants BH25 7DF England. (44) 01425-620532. Email: 10157.411@compuserve.com.

March 2-5.  ASCM Annual Convention and Exhibition, Baltimore, Maryland.  Contact:  ACSM, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 100, Bethesda, MD 20814.  (301) 493-0200.

March 25-29.  Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts.  Contact: AAG, (202) 234-1450.

September 15-19. International Map Trade Association 18th Conference and Trade Show, Seattle, Washington.  Contact: IMTA, (815) 939-4627.

Newsletter Deadline

Please submit articles for the Winter, 1998 issue of the Cartography Specialty Group newsletter by December 1, 1997 to:

Ann Goulette
5605 N. 24th St.
Arlington, VA 22205

The CSG receives its mailing labels from AAG Headquarters.  Changes or corrections to the mailing list should be sent to:

1710 Sixteenth Street, NW
Washington, DC  20009-3198

Sponsored by the AAG Cartography Specialty Group

Announcement of 1997-98 Award Applications

The Cartography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers is pleased to announce the 1997-98 Master's Thesis Research Grants.  These grants are available to masters students working on cartographic research and who are enrolled in a geography degree program.  Grants are available up to a maximum of $400 and may be used for items necessary and relevant to research such as travel, materials, equipment, and human subject fees.  Deadlines for applications are November 1st, March 15th, and June 15th.

Fundable Research
 Fundable research must be cartographic in nature. Cartography must be the central focus of the research, and not merely a tool used in support of some other research.

Review of Proposals
 Research proposals will be judged based upon (1) their originality, (2) their research design or plan of work, and (3) their budget and its justification.
 Proposals are reviewed by a committee of three people selected by the Non-Academic Director in consultation with the CSG Chair.  The reviewers' comments will be provided to the applicant in a blind manner.

Date of Awards
 Awards will be made two months after the review date for which the proposal was submitted.

Materials Required for Submission

Application Form
Fill out the application form completely.  (Application forms may be obtained from the Non-Academic Director.)  Note that the applicant and the advisor are jointly responsible for the accuracy and validity of all information on the application.  Be sure to complete the budget and justification on the back of the application form.  List the requested items from highest to lowest priority and include price quotations for these items.  Below, provide a brief justification of why the items you are requesting are necessary to your thesis.  Finally, state whether you will accept partial funding should the entire amount requested not be granted.

Description of the Research Plan
A description of your research plan is also required.  Place your name and the title of your thesis at the top of the first page.  State the research objectives and the specific aims of the research.  Describe concisely the methods for achieving these goals.  The research plan should not exceed three pages.  Please note that human subject clearance must be obtained before grant money can be awarded, if the research involves human subjects.

All applications must be typewritten or completed on a word processor.  Incomplete applications will not be considered.  Applications must be received by the deadline in order to be considered for funding.

Submit the original signed application form and research plan along with two copies to:

Anna Williams, CSG Non-academic Director
4705 Eddystone St.
Annandale, VA  22003
Phone: (703) 264-3037
Fax:  (703) 716-7531
E-mail: williama@nima.mil

1997-1998 Officers

Chair (1997-1998)

Dr. Ute J. Dymon
Department of Geography
Kent State University
Kent, OH  44242-0001
(330) 672-3226

Vice Chair - Appointed (1997-1998)

Dr. Scott Freundschuh
Department of Geography
University of Minnesota
Duluth, MN  55812
(218) 726-6226

Secretary/Treasurer (1996-1998)

Ann Goulette
5605 N. 24th St.
Arlington, VA  22205
(301) 669-5533

Ann Goulette, CSG Newsletter Editor
5605 N. 24th St.
Arlington, VA  22205

Academic Director (1996-1998)

Dr. Scott Freundschuh
Department of Geography
University of Minnesota
Duluth, MN  55812
(218) 726-6226

Academic Director (1997-1999)

Dr. Jeremy Crampton
Department of GESS
Mailstop 1E2
George Mason University
Fairfax, VA  22030-4444
(703) 993-1217

Non-Academic Director (1997-1999)

Anna Williams
4705 Eddystone St.
Annandale, VA  22003
(703) 264-3037

Student Director (1996-1997)

Jeannette Candau
Department of Geography
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA  93106-4060

Past Chair (1996-1997)

Dr. Eugene Turner
Department of Geography
California State University
Northridge, CA  91330
(818) 677-3532
CSG Newsletter  page 4

CSG Newsletter  page 1