The developmental sequence of decoding skills on this site is presented in terms of phases, following Ehri and her colleagues.

The sequence of phases is

  1. Pre-alphabetic
  2. Partial alphabetic
  3. Full alphabetic
  4. Consolidated alphabetic
  5. Automatic.

Comprehension skills develop over time but research does not present them in terms of clear sequence.

This table presents the sequence, content, assessment, and instruction of decoding.

home diagram

Ehri & McCormick, 1998

Ehri & Soffer, 1999