Content, assessment and instruction for phonemic awareness and Ehri's five phases of decoding.
Phases
Content

Characteristics of the phase

Assessment

Tools to guide instruction

Instruction

Teach to progress

Phonemic Awareness
  • Distinguish between phonemes
  • Sequence phonemes
  • Blend phonemes
  • Segment phonemes
  • Manipulate phonemes
    • Presence/absence
    • Sequence

  • Phoneme Segmentation
    • Say the sounds in gat.
    • "/g/ /a/ /t/."
  • Phoneme Blending
    • Blend /g/ /a/ /t/ together.
    • "/gat/."
  • Phoneme Elision (Deletion)
    • Say gat without the /g/.
    • "/at/."

CTOPP

  • Use an explicit, systematic program
  • Teach small groups of students
  • Before teaching alphabet
  • While teaching alphabet
  • Teach multiple skills
    • Segment
    • Blend
    • Delete
    • Rhyme
    • Alliteration
    • Without letters
    • With letters
Pre-Alphabetic
  • Letter Names
    • Accuracy
    • Rate
  • Letter Sounds
    • Accuracy
    • Rate
  • Sight Words
    • Accuracy
    • Rate

CBA

CBM

CTOPP

  • Use a systematic program
  • Whole-class instruction may be as effective as small group or individual instruction
  • Letters
    • Alphabet song
    • Letters make words
      • Letter sorts
    • Sound-letter correspondences
    • Teach a few letters at a time
  • Words
    • Words make sentences
      • Word sorts
    • Teach few sight words at a time from texts before and after reading
    • Teach few sight words at a time from lists
  • Texts
    • Parts of books
      • Names and functions
    • Types of books
      • Names and functions
    • Predictable books
    • Repeated readings
    • Guided oral reading
  • Writing
    • Letter shapes
      • Trace large letters on paper or erasable board
      • Make out of clay, etc.
    • Spelling
      • Invented spellings
      • Conventional spellings
Partial Alphabetic
  • Names of most letters
  • Sound/letter correspondences for many letters
  • Relationship between letters and words
  • Sight words from texts and environment
  • Invented spelling
  • Sight Words
    • In Context (Passages)
    • In Isolation (Lists)
  • Spelling
    • Phonetic
    • Conventional

CBA

CBM

CTOPP

Informal Reading Inventory

Word Attack

  • Letters
    • Teach letter names
    • Teach basic sound/letter correspondences
  • Words
    • Onsets and rimes
    • Analogy to familiar words
    • Sight words
    • Fluency
  • Texts
  • Writing
    • Sentence stems
    • Sentences
Full Alphabetic
  • Names, major sounds of all letters
  • Identifying words from letter-by-letter decoding
  • Sight words from word lists and texts
  • Conventional spelling
  • Spelling words from word lists and texts
  • Sight Words
    • In Context
    • In Isolation
  • Spelling
    • Phonetic
    • Conventional

CBA

CBM

GORT-4

Informal Reading Inventory

Word Attack

  • Letters
    • Hierarchical decoding
      • Vowel rules
        • Silent e
      • Consonant rules
        • "C rule"
  • Words
    • Analogy to familiar words
    • Affixes, prefixes, and roots
    • Syllables
      • Rules for syllabification
    • Sight words
    • Fluency
  • Texts
  • Writing
    • Sentences
Consolidated Alphabetic
  • Word families--rimes
  • Affixes
  • Identifying words by analogy
  • Syllables
  • Sight words from texts
  • Spelling words from texts
  • Sight Words
    • In Context
    • In Isolation
  • Oral Reading
    • Fluency
      • Rate
      • Accuracy
      • Prosody (expression)
  • Spelling
    • Conventional

CBA

CBM

GORT-4

Informal Reading Inventory

  • Words
    • Analogy to familiar words
    • Affixes, prefixes, and roots
      • Origins of words and parts
  • Texts
  • Writing
    • Multiple sentences
Automatic
  • Fluent decoding
  • Large vocabulary of sight words
  • Command of multiple strategies for identifying unfamiliar words
  • Fluent encoding
  • Large vocabulary of spelling words
  • Spelling words from texts
  • Oral Reading
    • Fluency
      • Rate
      • Accuracy
      • Prosody (expression)
  • Spelling
    • Conventional

CBA

CBM

GORT-4

Informal Reading Inventory

  • Words
    • Most words are sight words
    • Multiple strategies for attacking unfamiliar words
  • Texts
  • Writing
    • Paragraphs
Primary Source Ehri & McCormick, 1998 McLoughlin & Lewis, 2001 McCormick, 2003