The content of reading instruction and assessment used by this site is limited to decoding and comprehension skills.

Decoding involves turning symbols into language. Decoding includes phoneme-level skills, letter-level skills, and word-level skills which generally develop in a predictable sequence.

Comprehension skills are approaches to interpreting language. Many comprehension skills have been identified. They include defining vocabulary, identifying and relating main and supporting ideas, and drawing inferences.

According to the simple view of reading, one's reading comprehension is limited by ones comprehension of spoken language--one's listening comprehension.

This table presents the sequence, content, assessment, and instruction of decoding.

home diagram

Gough & Tunmer, 1986

McCormick, 2003