In the automatic phase of decoding, word-level decoding is predominant. A person in this phase normally decodes fluently and has many strategies at her disposal to identify novel words.

At this phase of decoding, Gough and Tunmer's simple view of reading predicts reading comprehension on par with listening comprehension.

  1. Pre-alphabetic
  2. Partial alphabetic
  3. Full alphabetic
  4. Consolidated alphabetic
  5. Automatic.

This table presents the sequence, content, assessment, and instruction of decoding.

home diagram

Ehri & Soffer, 1999

Gough and Tunmer, 1986

McCormick, 2003