1.  Mountain and Valley Winds
    (1).  Mountain winds
          A.  Winds blow from the mountain top to the valley.
          B.  Nighttime winds 
          C.  The mountain top cools more rapidly than does the valley.
    (2).  Valley winds
          A.  Wind blows from the valley along the mountain slope upward.
          B.  Daytime winds
              (A).  At the same elevations, air pressure is higher over
                    the slope areas than over the valley because of the
                    warmer air column over the slope areas (the 
                    hydrostatic equation).
              (B).  The upper level winds from both slopes converge toward
                    the center over the valley causing the subsidences
                    toward the valley floor.  The air currents then flow 
                    toward the slopes and upward completing two 
                    circulation circles.        
2.  Land and Sea Breezes
    (1).  Land breezes
          A.  Surface winds blow from land to sea (offshore winds).
          B.  Nighttime winds.
              (A).  Land: Relatively cool and a weak High.  
                    Land cools and warms more rapidly than the nearby sea 
                    due to a lower specific heat capacity for soil (0.2 
                    cal/g) than for water (1 cal/g).
              (B).  Sea:  Relatively warm and a weak Low (land to sea
                    pressure gradient is about 1 to 2 mb or higher).
          C.  The isobaric surface near the ground slopes downward from
              land to sea.      
          D.  Upper level: Return flow (winds blow from sea to land,
              frequently bringing stratus clouds from sea to land at night
              in southern California).
    (2).  Sea breezes
          A.  Surface winds blow from sea to land (onshore winds).
          B.  Daytime winds
              (A).  Land: relatively warm and a weak Low (thermal
              (B).  sea: relatively cool and a weak High (thermal
          C.  The isobaric surface slopes downward from sea to land.
          D.  Upper level (a few hundred to a few thousnad feet high):
              Return flow from land to sea pushes stratus clouds seaward
              in addition to the burnoff (evaporation) of clouds by solar
              heating in southern California.  One usually oberves stratus
              clouds off the coast on the daytime.
3.  Foehn Wind
    (1).  Definition: The warm and dry wind over the Foehn Village
          on the north slope of the Alps Mountains.  The south wind blows
          from Italy crossing the mountains and descends on the lee side
          (north side) of mountain where the Foehn village is located. 
    (2).  The warm and dry winds that descend on the lee side of a
          mountain in any part of the world (Chinook wind and Santa Ana
          wind, for example).
    (3).  Caused by the cpmpressional heating of descending air:
          warm and dry.         
    (4).  A type of katabatic wind (downslope wind)
          Anabatic wind: upslope wind.
4.  Chinook wind (Snow-eater)
    (1).  The warm and dry wind on the eastern slopes of the Rocky
          Mountains (Montana, Colorado).
    (2).  Air temperature may rise more than 20 oC in a few minutes.
    (3).  Synoptic patterns
          A.  The occurrence of a Great Basin High.
          B.  The occurrence of an Alberta or a Montana Low.
          C.  The west winds (SW, W, NW) from the the Rocky Mountains
              downward to the Alberta Low.
5.  Santa Ana Wind
    (1).  Definition:   
          A.  The warm,dry, and strong wind that blows over the southern
              California from the Great Basin as a north, northeast or
              east wind (offshore wind).
          B.  wind speed exceeds 20 mph.
          C.  relative humidity is about 20% or lower.
    (2).  Cold Santa Ana wind:  
          A.  The original air temperature is very cold.
          B.  The air temperature may not be warm enough even after the
              air descends(sinks).
    (3).  Synoptic Patterns:
          A.  A cold Great Basin High
              The surface High decreases its intensity with the increasing
              height, becoming a Low at the 500 mb level.
          B.  After the passage of a cold front over California.
              The High behind a cold front moves to the Great Basin.
          C.  A surface Low to the south of California (in Mexico or off
              the Mexico coast) creating a large pressure gradient.
          D.  A 500 mb ridge to the north of California in a northeast
              to souuthwest orientation.
          E.  A 500 mb trough extends from the Great Basin to southern
    (4).  Strong wind
          A.  Large pressure gradient.
          B.  Canyon effect:
              Wind speed accelerates when passing through the canyon.
              (A).  Newhall pass.
              (B).  Cajon Pass.
    (5).  Diurnal variation
          A.  Stronger Santa Ana wind at night
              Santa  Ana wind is accelerated by land breeze.
          B.  Weaker Santa Ana wind on the day
              Santa Ana wind blows against sea breeze.
    (6).  Seasonal Variation
          A.  Occurs most frequently in winter (September to May)
              peaking in December through April.
          B.  Accounts for the warmest temperature in winter: 90oF+
    (7).  Types
          A.  Weak Santa Ana wind
              (A).  Santa Ana wind blows above sea breeze.
              (B).  Smoggy weather.
          B.  Strong Santa Ana wind
              (A).  Santa Ana wind extends to ground surface.
              (B).  Less smoggy but may be dusty. 
    (8).  Santa Ana Condition
          Same synoptic patterns as Santa Ana winds but lack of strong
          winds (heat wave in summer).
    (9).  Fire weather
          Santa Ana wind provides favorable conditions (dry, warm, windy)
          for the occurrence of fire.
6.  Sundowner
    (1).  A downslope warm and dry wind over the Santa Barbara
          coastal areas along the lee of the east-west oriented Ynez
          Mountains: N or NW wind, 40-50 mph. may exceed 80 mph.
    (2).  June 17, 1959:  
          A.  Temperature reaching 132oF at 2 p.m. in Goleta Harbor
              (meausred by a US survey ship).
          B.  Santa Barbara City: 136oF (57.8oC): tied record high
              temperature for the earth if validated.
    (3).  Painted Cave fire: June 27, 1990
          Winds gusting at 40-70 mph, temperature reaching 112oF.
    (4).  Much more local nature than the Santa Ana wind.
          Most vulnerable during the months of June and July.
    (5).  Causes:
          A.  Lee waves.  
          B.  Large pressure gradient.  
          C.  Canyon effect.
7.  Mono Wind: A type of Foehn wind over Mono county of California.
8.  Northers (in Texas) and Nortes (in central America). 
    (1).  A cold strong wind sweeps southward over the Great Plains
          of the United States behind a cyclone that has moved toward
    (2).  The Rocky Mountain barrier helps to channel the flow of
          cold air.
    (3).  In Kansas and Texas, temperature can drop as much as 10 oC
          in 3 to 4 hours.
9.  Blizzard
    (1).  Cold strong wind accompanied by snow.
    (2).  Blizzard warning
          wind speeds:     at leat 60 km/h (35 mph)
          temperatures:    less than -6oC(20oF)
    (3).  Severe blizzard warning
          Winds are expected to be at least 75 km/h (45 mph)
          Temperature are expected to drop below -12oC(10oF)