1. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA Stromateis (ca. 194 A.D.) states that, from the birth of Christ to the death of Commodus (December 30/January 1, 192/3) there were 194 years, one month, and 13 days. This can in no way accord with the idea of December 25 as the birthday of Christ. Clement seems to believe that JC was born on 18 NOVEMBER, 3 B.C.

  2. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA also says that 'others' place the birth of Christ 'in the 28th year of Augustus, on the 25th of Pachon' = 20 MAY, 2 B.C.

  3. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA says that the followers of Basileides (who were heretical persons) placed the baptism of JC in the Year 15 of Tiberius, on 15 Tybi (JANUARY 10) , while others put it on the 11th (JANUARY 6, Epiphany). Others declare that the Savior was born on 24/5 Pharmuthi (= 19/20 APRIL).

  4. EPIPHANIUS (died 403 A.D.) speaks of the Alogi of Asia Minor (ca. 180 A.D.), who put the birth of Christ under the consulship of Camerinus and Poppaeus Sabinus, either on the 12th day before the first of June or July (i.e. either MAY 21 or JUNE 20, A.D. 9)

  5. EPIPHANIUS himself refers to the birth of Christ in the 42nd year of Augustus, when Augustus was consul for the 13th time with Silvanus, on the 8th day before the Ides of January, 13 days after the winter solstice, at dawn. This would be 6 JANUARY, 2 B.C.

  6. EUSEBIUS, The History of the Church I. 5: "It was the forty-second year of Augustus' reign, and the twenty-eighth after the subjugation of Egypt and the deaths of Antony and Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, when our Saviour and Lord, Jesus Christ, at the time of the first registration, while Quirinius was governor of Syria... was born in Bethlehem in Judaea. "( 3 B.C.)


  1. LUKE (3. 1) states that Jesus Christ began preaching in the Year 15 of Tiberius:

    Tiberius first received designation from Augustus as successor and was adopted in A.D. 4 (thus Year 15=A.D. 18/9)
    Tiberius received joint power to govern the provinces with Augustus shortly after his Triumph of
           October 23, A.D. 12 (Suetonius) (thus Year 15=A.D. 26 or 27)
    Tiberius was left with sole power by the death of Augustus on August 19, A.D. 14 (thus A.D. 28 or 29)

  2. LUKE (3. 23) states that Jesus was about 30 when he was baptised and began to preach.

  3. JOHN (8. 57) makes the Jews say to Jesus, `You are not yet fifty years old'. [meaning that he was approaching it ??]

  4. MATTHEW (17. 24-27) states that Jesus and Peter paid the half-shekel for the Temple. This was an obligation of all Jewish males between 20 and 50 years of age. (Josephus Antiquities 3.8.1 [196]).

  5. JOHN (2. 20) may say that 'it had taken forty-six years (up to that time) to build the Temple.' If so, since the Temple of Herod was begun in 19 B.C., the 46 years would bring us up to Spring 27/8 A.D.

© 07/23/2003
January 28, 2010 4:01 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

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