(Wheelock Ch. 37)
There is a group of verbs which, in form, exist only in the third person singular of the various tenses, and in the infinitive. These verbs have no subject, either expressed or understood, and thus they are said to be 'impersonal'. In the Active Voice, we find such verbs used to express:
|PLUIT||'It is raining"|
|OPORTET||"It is desirable/proper"||OPORTERE||OPORTUIT|
|DECET||"It is fitting"||DECERE||DECUIT|
|CONSTAT||"It is apparent/obvious"||CONSTARE||CONSTITUIT|
|LICET||"It is permitted/lawful"||LICERE||LICUIT|
|PLACET||"It is pleasing"||PLACERE||PLACUIT|
|EVENIT||"It happens, It turns out that"||EVENIRE||EVENIT|
|PUDET||"It is a shame that..."||PUDERE||PUDUIT|
|IUVAT||"It is a pleasure"|
English examples: "It is raining." "It is getting dark." "It is a nice day out today."
Latin example: iam advesperascit. "It is already growing dark."
The PASSIVE of intransitive verbs can take a(b) + the infinitive as the ablative of agent; or it can have an indirect object; or can lack either.
|pugnatum est.||"There was a battle." (It was fought)|
|resistitur.||"Resistance was offered" (It was resisted)|
|bellatum est.||"The fight took place." (it was warred)|
|persuasum est homini.||"Persuasion waws used on the man."|
|contenditur proelio.||"Struggle took place in battle."|
|ex tota urbe in Forum concursum est.||"From the whole city a rush was made into the Forum"|
|non perseveratum est ab eo.||"Perseverence was not shown by him."|
John Paul Adams, CSUN