• 594
    SOLON is archon (chief magistrate) at Athens. His reforms. The beginnings of Athenian Democracy. Herodotus, Histories, Book I, ch. 32f. (Gochberg, p. 149).
  • 566
    PANATHENAIC GAMES established at Athens (recitations of the Homeric Poems as part of the celebrations)
  • 560
    PISISTRATUS (Solon's cousin) becomes tyrant in Athens (560-528).
  • 560
    Accession of King Croesus of Lydia
    Visit of Solon the Athenian (Herodotus: Gochberg, pp. 148-159)
  • 546 Spring
    King Croesus meets King Cyrus (King of the Medes and the Persians) on the Battlefield. End of Croesus. [Story told by Herodotus: Gochberg pp. 158-159.]
  • 535?
    THESPIS is producing tragedies at Athens.
  • 525
    AESCHYLUS the tragedian is born at Eleusis in Athens. (Dies 456)
  • 514
    Assassination attempt against the sons of the Tyrant Pisistratus. One is killed, and the regime turns nasty (Harmodius and Aristogeiton).
  • 510
    Revolution in Athens: expulsion of the tyrants; expulsion of a Spartan force sent to `help'; installation of the `Radical Democracy' sponsored by Cleisthenes (son of Megacles, of the Alcmaeonid Family).
  • 496
    SOPHOCLES the tragedian born at Colonus in Athens. (Dies 405) [See Gochberg, pp. 47-48]
  • 490
    First Persian Invasion of Greece (DARIUS I the Great). Battle of MARATHON.
  • 487
    The first ostracism in Athens (expulsion of one politician in the early Spring of a given year, if and only if a minimum of 5000 people vote in the balloting). No crime is charged; the decision is extra-legal, but designed to protect the democracy against its own leaders.
  • 485
    EURIPIDES the tragedian is born in Athens. (Dies in Macedonia 406/5)
  • 484
    Aeschylus wins his first victory in the tragedy competitions.
  • 480
    Themistocles of Athens. Battle of SALAMIS
    Battle of THERMOPYLAE Leonidas of Sparta [HERODOTUS, in Gochberg pp. 132-148]
  • 479
    Battle of PLATAEA

  • 478-404
    THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE: an alliance against the Persian threat, but most allies preferred (and by 450 were required) to pay Athenians to staff the ships rather than supply ships and crews themselves. This gave Athens the power base and organization to dominate the Aegean area.
  • 469
    SOCRATES the philosopher is born in Athens. [executed in 399, age 70]
  • 455
    First of Euripides' 92 plays produced in Athens. (he came in 3rd)
  • 453
    PERICLES, whose mother is an Alcmaeonid, comes to prominence. [His life and career related by Thucydides, and by Plutarch in his Biography of Pericles in the Parallel Lives]
  • 443
    HERODOTUS, `Father of (Greek) History' is living in Athens

  • 432
    Beginning of the SECOND (GREAT) PELOPONNESIAN WAR: Athens vs. Sparta.
    The Athenian general and (later) historian THUCYDIDES began taking notes.
  • 431
    PERICLES' FUNERAL ORATION (reported by Thucydides: Gochberg, pp. 176-183)
  • 430
    Birth of XENOPHON (Gochberg, p. 160), author of Memories of Socrates, The Expedition of the Ten Thousand (Anabasis), The Hellenic History.
  • 429
    Plague breaks out in Athens (429-426) [Thucydides, in Gochberg, pp. 184-188] Pericles dies.
    Shortly thereafter Sophocles produces Oedipus Tyrannos (429-425). [Gochberg, pp. 47-130]
  • 427
    ARISTOPHANES began producing comedies (Clouds, 423, about Socrates and his `think-factory'.
    PLATO, the philosopher, pupil of Socrates from about 407-399, born.
  • 424
    Athenian campaign in Thrace around Amphipolis against Spartans and their general Brasidas. Thucydides the Historian was one of the Athenian generals (in charge of logistics). He was blamed for the Athenian disaster and was exiled.
  • 415
    After a truce (421-415) the Peloponnesian War breaks out again. Athens sends an expedition to Sicily to try to capture Syracuse, but the intended commander (Alcibiades, a protege of Pericles) is disgraced as things are just getting started. By 412 the expedition is a disastrous failure.
  • 411
    Aristophanes' Lysistrata. A conservative coup-d'-etat in the Spring (the 400) and a democratic counter- coup in the summer. Very hard feelings all around.
  • 406
    Battle of ARGINUSAE. Disaster: Six of the ten admirals executed, including the son of PERICLES. Socrates presided over the Ecclesia (Athenian national assembly) on the day that the disaster was first discussed in public, the morning after the news arrived; he refused to put the motion for the death penalty for all the generals to a vote.
  • 405
    Battle of AEGOSPOTAMI
  • 404
    September: Capitulation of Athens to Sparta. Occupation by Lysander the Spartan general.

  • 404-3
    Athens under the rule of the THIRTY TYRANTS (including Plato's uncle and cousin, both of whom were ex- friends of Socrates), a bunch of Spartan Quislings of a conservative and vengeful stamp. More than 1500 executions.
  • 403
    Restoration of the DEMOCRACY. A new Athenian Empire ( ca. 378-338) but much diminished in power, wealth and influence.
  • 399
    Trial and execution of SOCRATES. (Gochberg, chapter 8)
  • 395-347
    Career of PLATO (at an Athenian gymnasium called the Academy). Plato's pupil ARISTOTLE (who taught, from 335, at a gymnasium in Athens called the LYCEUM), died 322.
  • 371
    Battle of LEUKTRA
  • 362
    Battle of MANTINEA. Sparta's third military defeat in her history. Sparta occupied by Theban army. Helots liberated. The end of Sparta as a significant force in Greek politics, replaced by Thebes (until 338).
  • 359-336
    PHILIP II (383/2–336) [son of Amyntas III (393/2–369/8) and Eurydice], King of Macedonia.
  • 338
    BATTLE OF CHAERONEA. Debut of Alexander, son of Philip and Olympias. Defeat of Thebes and Athens: Macedonia replaces Thebes as the leading Greek state (HEGEMON).
  • 336
    Philip assassinated, succeeded by his 19 year-old son, ALEXANDER III (359–323).
  • 335
    Beginning of the campaigns of ALEXANDER THE GREAT against PERSIA.
  • 356-323
    Aristotle's most important pupil, ALEXANDER III (`THE GREAT'), king of Macedonia from 336, Pharaoh of Egypt from 331, Great King of Persia from 328, god from 324/3. Died of fever in Babylon in June of 323, aged 33.
  • From 323
    ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE dismantled, eventually into four kingdoms;

    (1) Macedonia (The Antigonids)
    (2) Egypt (The Ptolemies)
    (3) Pergamon (The Attalids)
    (4) Syria-Mesopotamia (The Seleucids).



May 24, 2009 9:04 PM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional
Valid CSS!