EGYPT: Some Notes

MANETHO (native Egyptian historian, ca. 280 B.C., worked at the MUSEUM, the first `graduate school' or `think tank', founded by the Greek PTOLEMY II in Alexandria). Manetho produced a History of his native Egypt of which there survives an annotated list of "Dynasties" of Egyptian pharaohs (Pharaoh: PER WA = `great house').

Union of Egypt (`Dynasty 1' variously dated, ca. 3400-2900 B.C.)

King `Scorpion'
King Narmer (Narmer palette, photo in Chambers, p. 15)
King MENES (=Narmer ? Menes is Manetho's name)
King Aha (=Menes ? =Narmer?)

The Pyramid Builders

(Dynasty 3 to Dynasty 5, ca. 2700-2350)

King ZOSER (= Djoser) commissioned the first step pyramid from the architect-priest-magician-bureaucrat
IM-HOTEP, who was later deified as the patron God of Medicine
King KHUFU (= Cheops) Dynasty 4: The Great Pyramid at Gizeh.



HYKSOS (ca. 1750--1570) Semitic invaders from Middle East, conquered and ruled the Delta from Memphis. Joseph, son of Jacob-Israel, may have been prime minister of the last Hyksos king (Dynasty 16)

Tuthmosis founder of Dynasty 18 (Theban), called The New Kingdom; led an uprising against the Hyksos and freed the sacred `Black Land', `Gift of the Gods'

THUTMOSIS III (ca. 1504--1450) greatest of the imperialists of the NEW KINGDOM: his empire reached the Euphrates River. His son was the AMENHOTEP II who set up the famous stele between the paws of the Sphinx at Giza.

AMENHOTEP III wealthiest and most magnificent of the Dynasty 18 pharaohs. His family was personally devoted to the Sun God of Heliopolis, RE-Harakhty, the solar disk.

AMENHOTEP IV son of A III, made RE (RA) `the only god worshipped in Egypt', under the name ATON, closed all the other temples, expelled the clergy. Called `THE HERETIC PHARAOH' Was perhaps a monotheist, but more likely a henotheist (There are many gods, but only one is to be worshipped). His successor was King TUT, his half-brother or son (?)

RAMESES II (ca. 1292-1225) Dynasty 19 BATTLE OF KADESH against HITTITES. Is he the Pharaoh of the Exodus ??

Rameses III (ca. 1198-1167) Dynasty 20: PEOPLES OF THE SEA invasions--included Cretans, Hittites, Achaeans (?), Danaans (?), Cilicians.


January 28, 2010 11:24 AM

John Paul Adams, CSUN

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional
Valid CSS!

| HOME | | FLIT 150 Home | | FLIT 350 Home | | FLIT 424 Home | | FLIT 480 Home |