Dr. Rosalind Latiner Raby Return to 506 Home-Page

Cultural Awareness


Hstorical Roots

Traditional Cartography


Millennium Cartography


Introduction: Overview of the course, Cultural Awareness; Intercultural Communications, Socialization


Different variations on learning and teaching

We are not a country fixed in time - we are evolving with a new majority merging.

The term minority is losing its statistical meaning.

In 22 of the 25 largest urban school districts they are already the majority. Class is not an issue in this instance

CA - 22% of population was born outside the U.S.

By 2002 - students of color are expected to make up 24% of under-18 population and 50% by 2010.

What makes education a system and what are the principles that allow it to function

American education does not exist in a vacuum. What it does affects other countries and events occurring in other nations affect the U.S.

Interest rate fluctuations in Tokyo affect business in Ventura Co.

Single crop growing of opium in Myramar supports U.S. drug habits

Education creates citizens who act as responsible, intelligent and productive members of a community. As our world becomes increasingly interdependent, this ideal citizen must also possess high levels of international competency.

International competency - is not any one view of the world, but the capacity to view, analyze and understand the world from a variety of perspectives.

Academicians, politicians and business leaders are forever complaining about the international illiteracy of American youth - such competency should become the cornerstone of American educational reform.

Beginning of Gulf war, many soldiers stated that they did not even know that this area of the world existed

Many students are still ignorant about importance of Vietnam, where Somalia, Rwanda, Chechnya, Bosnia are . . .

Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Fall 1996.


PARADIGM - world view. Changes with philosophy, with time and with culture: Upon which are based:

a) Theory of Education - (ideology, culture, learning and instruction, justification of all of above, goals, capitalist vs. other aims)

b) Theory of Educational Systems: (formal ed - grades, certificates, centrally tied to the economy, ed as part of nation building, organization - systemic what are dynamics of the system)

Education - Transition of Culture



A shared design for living Learned Behavior. Rules for interacting and for why certain things are done in certain ways.

Shared pictures people carry in their minds for perceiving, relating to and interpreting the world about them.

Passed on from one generation to another.

Goodenough defines:

"Culture consists of standards for deciding what is, standards for deciding what can be, standards for deciding how one feels about it, standards for deciding what to do about it and standards for deciding how to go about doing it."

learned behavior - sets rules for behavior. Encompasses: kinship, marriage, political and economic organization, religion and social interactions

explains why certain things are done in certain ways

gives people a sense of identity

facilitates intercultural communication and relations

Every individual has own version of culture. Mini-cultural groups that overlap.

Different models for different roles

I am - woman, daughter, sister, wife, mother, professor, friend etc.

VALUES: System of culturally acquired beliefs and habits that permit individuals and institutions to maintain a comprehensive cultural identity

Our world is comprised of many different cultures. Each of them being unique in the values they hold, the behavior they exhibit and the belief system which sustains them.


Differences are not barriers

Differences cause difficulty in communicating

1) no two things are identical

2) no one thing stays the same: time and space

3) It is not possible to tell all about anything: all descriptions are open-ended

4) statement of opinions are often confused with statements of facts

5) beware of stereotyping, ethnocentrism and biases

6) seek our commonalities among cultural diversities

7) recognize a different scale of values

8) Same word may be used to represent different "realities" while similar events or experiences sometimes called by different names

9) Become alert to ways in which cultural conditioning shape our value judgments.


EMIC: study of unique features of cultures (insiders)

ETIC: study of unique features of cultures (outsiders)

MACRO-CULTURES: larger cultural groups: national, ethnic, racial

MICRO-CULTURES: cultural groups within cultural groups: identity groups

SOCIALIZATION: Process by which cultural groups convey, formally and informally, skills, traditions, symbols and behaviors from generation to generation

Socialization teaches cultural knowledge needed to be effective cultural members

ACCULTURATION: Adjusting and adopting to a new and specific culture.

Migratory patterns make acculturation an intense social phenomena of this century.

Through this process, learn to make their judgments about other culture and choose to adopt another cultural traits.

INCULTURATION: When there is no choice - forced to adapt to another culture


No nation is without ethnic differences. Ethnic enclaves are located in various places through advent of migration and trade

CLASSIFY: To understand world around use - DEFINE AND CLASSIFY

Cope with environment and organize vast quantities of data to which we are exposed, all people classify their experience according to categories derived from cultural conditioning.

Geography - use of different maps

Life - classify different cultures/groups of peoples

classifications are necessary for communication and comprehension of our world

All classifications are subject to CULTURAL RESTRAINTS

How we classify indicates how we relate to one another on different levels. This can be a form of communication, both positive and negative. Much of cross-cultural learning is based on assumptions of how we understand ourselves in relationships to others.

ETHNOCENTRISM: Term coined by William Braham Summer (early 1900s')

Seeing one's own culture as the center of the universe.

Believing that one's way is superior to others.

Loyalty to one's social group and traditional patterns of life

STEREOTYPES: In process of classification, people inevitably group together things which are discriminately different (exaggerated belief).

Respond to objects or people in terms of categories that they created (pre-judging) rather than in terms of the individual uniqueness.

Acts as both a device for justifying acceptance or for rejecting others.

Pre-judging according to categories rather than reality

Labeling new acquaintances (students)

It is easier and quicker to stereotype. Thus a natural and inevitable cognitive process often leads to the harmful imposition of inaccurate attributes and stereotypical characterizations unto others.

National Character Studies: identifiable traits for all people in a geographic region. Generalizes too much; does not account for culture/social change; does not account for time/space differentiation; does not account for group and sub-group differences.

National Character is problematic

1) generalizes too much

2) does not account for culture/social change

3) does not account for time/space differentiation

4) group differences: sub-cultures




1) Are you familiar with the country's basic culture and history? Students family structure?

2) Are you aware of U.S. non-verbal forms of communication?

3) Are there non-verbal behavior patterns you use which may be interpreted as "offensive"

4) Can you anticipate some possible miscommunication problems

5) Are you aware of your others non-verbal behavior or communication pattern?

6) Do you know that others culture dictates as being appropriate in a social context? In a work context? In the family context?

7) Visit the community; Familiarize self with literature written by culturally diverse authors

8) Subscribe to ethnically diverse publications; Enroll in race awareness or cross-cultural workshops; Form professional relations with culturally diverse colleagues


Language, Thinking Patterns, Forms of Expression (verbal and nonverbal)

1) Cultural Self-awareness

2)Cultural differences: How differences are perceives and how others look at U.S.; Stereotyping

3) Non-Verbal

4) Coping skills for interaction: Dealing with differences

5) Assimilation demonstration

6) Culture Specific Applications

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION: Defining one's image of self, personal needs, values, norms, and one's roles in society in relation to another cultural boundaries. Involves establishing relationships.

Individual patterns of behavior are based on individual perceptions of the external world, which are largely learned.

The higher the degree of similarity of perception

a) the easier communication among them is likely to be;

b) the more communication will occur;

c) the more likely it is that this similarity will be recognized: identify groups will form.

However, even when people speak the same language, cultural differences can alter communication symbols and meanings:


Communication across cultural boundaries becomes all the more difficult. Differences in customs, behavior, values promote cultural misunderstanding.

Communication is manifest through symbols that differ in their meaning according to time, place, culture, or person.


THOUGHT PATTERNS: also culturally determined; forms of reasoning

Cultural learning is not designed to make all people in the world alike, nor is it intended to teach that one set of values is better than another.

Through understanding from the point of view of another culture, you can make your own judgement about that culture with as little cultural preconception as possible.


1) Proximity/Space

2) Time and Time consciousness/sense

3) Dress and Appearance: outward garments, body decorations

4) Food and Feeding Habits: manner Food is selected, prepared, presented and eaten

5) Roles and relationships: age, sex, status, family, wealth, power, wisdom etc.

6) Work habits and practices (rewards and recognition); definitions of work and practice (individual oriented or communal)

7) Others: shapes, colors, sounds, smells, art forms, body language

8) Gestures, Grimaces, Signs: Can mean different things to different cultures

Comparative & International Education Discourses: International Education Applications

INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: Education aimed at enabling all members of a learning community to respect, accept and understand cultural variations and differences that enable them to manage their own responses when interacting and communicating with culturally different others, both within and beyond defined geographic borders.

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION: Education that highlights the rich diversity of cultures found within a defined location and gives legitimacy to cultures and perspectives that have been previously misunderstood or omitted by providing means for appreciation of that diversity.

GLOBAL EDUCATION: Education that emphasizes similarities among world cultures and underscores the universality of experience derived from the emergence of new systems, structures, and modalities that combine economic, political and cultural characteristics.

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION: Education that emphasizes a need to understand a variety of perspectives (ethnic, (geographic, cultural, gender, etc.) by acknowledging similarities, but also by respecting and protecting differences among multi-country diversities.

COMPARATIVE EDUCATION: cross-cultural study of (a) the relationships between education and other aspects of society; and (b) of the interrelationships among the various aspects of education. The field is an intersection of social sciences, education, and cross-national study (Noah and Eckstein)

The more social life becomes influenced by the similarities of a global culture, the stronger the need becomes to identify singular forms of cultural identity. In this dialectic, both international and global dimensions exist, and both need to be emphasized.

Basic questions:

Who controls education?

What is the purpose of education?

How do children learn?

How much is spent on education?

Why are schools so resistant to change?

Recognizing this resistance, what is the likely future of education?



Many California and National legislative and educational policies affirm that international and global educational programs are an integral part of the academic life of community colleges. The role of community colleges is changing in California.

For transfer and for work preparation succes is enhanced by obtaining international and global literacy skills, as community college students are directly involved with careers that have an international and global dimension.

International and Global competency a) politically, is a pragmatic tool for national security; b) economically, is a means to promote international trade and hence a requirement to ensure a competitive edge in the world market economy; and c) humanistically, is a way to understand other languages and cultures which builds abilities for sensitivity, tolerance and peace.

91 California community colleges responded to a 1998 survey which asks about the structure of campus international and global education programs.

87 of the 91 reporting California community colleges offer at least one type of international and global education program and of those 87 colleges, 81 offer two or more different programs.

The three most popular California identified campus programs are: International Students (81 colleges, 90%); Study Abroad (68 colleges, 76%) and International Studies (38 colleges, 43%).

The least popular campus programs are: International Centers (22 college, 25%); International Development (24 colleges, 27%) International Virtual University/ International Distance Education (33 colleges, 37%), International Economic Development and Immigrant Education (34 colleges, 38%).

All but four colleges offer at least one identified campus program and that program typically is an International Student Program. These programs have the potential of bringing in large amounts of tuition to the campus. The second most popular identified program is Study Abroad (68 out of 90 colleges) which is not a large income producer, and at times can even cost the college money.

61 colleges, 68%, of all California Community Colleges are either discussing or planning to implement new programs that involve both on-campus and off-campus endeavors. This extremely high amount of action indicates support for international and global education programs.

The most popular programs being discussed are: I Virtual/Distance Education (23%); and I Faculty Development (16%). The most popular programs being developed are: CITD (12%); I Students (12%); Study Abroad, I Curricula and ESL (11%); and Sister City (11%).

As we enter into the next century, comprehensive community college international and global education remains not only essential but critical. These programs are no longer optional, but integral to the success and mission of community colleges nationwide.

Investment in international and global education is an investment in prevention of ignorance.



Process by which cultural groups convey, from generation to generation, formally and informal, traditions, skills, values, symbols and behaviors

Through the process of socialization, children learn the cultural knowledge they need in order to be effective in their physical, social and economic environment

Even within similar cultures, there are differences as to the socialization process

Differences about the ways institutions and schools prescribe cultural behavior

Differences about the conflict which takes place when family socialization differs from institutional socialization


In family - child learns behavior significant to family and relevance to societal life

Adult family members predominate

Family and community vs. School


Tendency for family to compete with state over what symbols are important to learn

Who does the teaching - primitive


What is being taught - complex

Conventional transmitters - formal curriculum and textbooks

Hidden Curriculum (Covert transmitters)

Teachers' perceptions and attitudes

Pattern of gender differentiation within classroom interactions

Schools' Authority Structure

Teacher/Student interaction patterns

Educational expectations




Need to move away from the input/output model of the school

Emphasis on need to view the content of school knowledge as problematic, thus focusing attention on the in-school process, on curricula and on student-teacher interaction (Bernstein, Young, Bourdieu)

JOHN DEWEY Education of Whole Person

WILLARD WALLER - schools as social system: 1935

Organizing relations in schools - no autonomy

Each school has unique culture

Levy - Fight between what school teachers and daily life experiences

TALBOT PARSONS & JAMES DREEBORN - Functionalist - schools socialize to maintain

Curriculum and way school is organized is run affects students lives

4 Values learned

1) independence

2) level of achievement; failure internalized - not put on society

3) universalism - value others on basis of equality of achievement

4) specificity - look at one role at time - not whole personality

PARSON's PROBLEM - Does not deal with societal divisions (ghetto School)


Emphasized conflict between teachers/students. New stage -adolescence!

Denial of significant school effects


Radical unequal economic reproduction thesis


1900 - Montessori - look at adaptation

1925 - Boas - prediction of child's predictability

1935 - Mead - personality and culture

1950 - Spindler - ethnicity and groups

1960 - Neller - ethnicity and groups

1968 - Spradley - Culture is learned behavior


Socializing Agents Change Between and Within Cultures

INDIA: Power of religious literary tradition and folklore that perpetuates cultural knowledge and influence the upbringing of children

CHINA - Overt role of institutions, such as day care centers and schools in conveying desirable cultural traits to their young



1) sponsorship; 2) Pre-chosen characteristic - (teachers who want to be administrators demonstrate different values); 3) Getting the Attention of Superiors- style of teachers who want to move up and out of the classroom; 4) formal academic preparation; 5) central office personnel as socializers; 6) living within the hierarchy



1946 - American textbook analysis found major characters in stories, the circumstances, the behavior displayed by the characters and the consequences of those actions reflected contemporary characteristics

While religious themes decreased, the content devoted to inculcating morals increased


David McClelland "The Achieving Society" (1961) suggests that a nations' economic growth is correlated to achievement imagery in second, third and fourth-grade readers. Psychological Reductionism Theory



Cultural ethos of a nation is found in elementary school texts. To the extent that these primers function as socialization agents, such tendencies appear to result in a hidden curriculum, not even open to official central control

Textbooks define a) right and wrong; b) friends and enemies; c) Nationalism (Americanisms); d) hero and failures; and e) perpetuate society


STAGE ONE: Borrowers

People who engaged in comparison to perfect the educational systems in their own countries

"causal travel" of individuals who observed other national educational systems

Area studies - looked at others systems to enhance their own

Origins of field

Cesar Auguste Basset 1808

Japan's Prince Tomomi Iwakura who led a mission to study European and American education in 1872

Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner and Friedrich Froebel - searched for "universals" was deemed more important than comparisons.

Canadians - Edgerton Ryerson (1868) & John Seath (1910)

Horace Mann and Henry Barnard in U.S.

Tolstoy (Russia), Sarminento (Argentina)


Mare-Antoine. Jullien - (1816) science of comparative education

questionnaires to be given internationally; created multi-lingual journals

Victor Cousins - (1831) lay basis for universal primary education; introduced Prussian education to the English and Americans

John Dewey - 1st international expert due to his influence on educational reform in USSR, China, Turkey and Mexico


People who sought to explain the nature of different educational systems by relating them to features of their societal context such as ethnic and racial complexity, language, race or geographic size and locations.

PROBLEM - These people ignored structures and processes of education


Sir Michael Sadler - 1895-1903 - England - marked the beginning of "scientific study of comparative education": How Far Can We Learn Anything of Practical Value from the Study of Foreign Systems of Education

Robert Ulich, William Brickman (emphasis on history)

Matthew Arnold - England (died 1888)

August Comte (1798-1857)

1830-1840 - advocated science of society

history adds little insight when biased and prejudicial. It is little more than chronicle - collection of facts - stories - not a science

history tells the unique not the mundane trends

Biology is good model for science of society

basic - evolution/development

simplex sociological forms evolve to complex

Therefore, societies can be compared on an evolutionary scale

1st stage - theological dominated by religion

2nd stage - metaphysical - dominated by philosophy

3rd stage - positive - dominated by science


Lauwerys, Hans and Schneider continued tradition set by Comte.

Herber Spenceer - social Darwinism - simple - complex

Ferdinand Tonnis - same

Robert Park - 1922 - "sociology and social scientists"

2nd Generation - were aware of the debate between history and hard science and for the most part sided against history - but still encouraged historical interpretation while using science when history defines laws of evolution it becomes sociology!

Kazamias - 1961 - laid out similar historical debate

Robert Ulich - German - 1934 - comparisons of historical perspective

William Brickman =- historian - gave comparative education glorified identity

1923 - International Institute of Education founded at Teachers College, Columbia

Director - Paul Monroe

1932 - Monroe and Schnider worked on International Review of Education

Kandel, Counts and Alexander (specialist on German Education) were on staff

Isaac Kandel - Comparative Education (1933) -

Lay the foundation for truly scientific study of comparative education

Historic method of study and cultural differences, i.e. national characters


1) description - collect data about a specific problem

2) explanation and interpretation - historical perspective

3) comparative analysis on levels 1 & 2

4) devise basic principles/generalizations


1) Historical approach can be overwhelming - because it is never ending

2) plays too many roles and touches all superficially

3) massive works with no citations or footnotes - plagerisim

4) national character emphasis

5) outspoken liberal democrat who did not accept any other systems

6) difficult to see where basic principles were derived at.

Kandel was not a progressivist and did not see education as panacea for society's ills.

Nicholas Hans

National character to describe policy - dynamic states

historical approach

similar to Kandel's Methodology. Added following elements

1) natural elements - givens of national identity

2) religious determinant of culture

3) secular factors - humanistic, socialism, nationalism

Followers of Hans - Joseph Lauwerys - 1947; Edmund King - 1955; Brian Holmes 1958

Joseph Lauwerys - 1947 - Canadian

national character advocate

problems - leaders to stereotypes

British influence based heavily on colonial empire and westernization to understand others.

Friedrich Schneider - Germany

Perspective similar to Kandal and Hans

1) national character

2) geographical territory

3) economic contribution

4) cultural factors

5) religion

6) science

7) social classes - NEW EMPHASIS

8) political context

9) Foreign countries influence on county in study - NEW EMPHASIS


Focusing on educational problems in diverse educational settings

Comparative Ed now become a social science

Daniel Boorstein (1958) The Americans - talks about borrowing of public ideals and stealing private ones

Primary educators such as devoted time to educational tours to learn how other systems worked.


1) Strong bias towards historical and area studies. - Bereday

2) Movement from "softer fields" to "hard science" -Harold Noah and Max Eckstein stressed quantification and more focused work in more limited settings.

T. Kuhn - 2 fields of science - 1962

astronomy - science based on objectivity - verify evidence - testing

astrology - mystical belief oriented

Learn through paradigms. There is no challenge to the paradigm - just a need to fill in the holes.

Karl Popper - Romantic Theorist

conjectures - hunch, hypotheses

refutations - prove falsehood to say that conjecture was not very good

Kuhn believes that few scientists will devote much energy to prove themselves wrong

Popper challenged Kuhn

BRIAN HOLMES. Holmes used Dewey's scientific approach

Dewey - how WE Think Scientifically

1) run into problem

2) think of solution

3) hypothesis one

4) try it out

5) reject or confirm hypothesis

Also used Popper's emphasis on philosophy

Emphasis needed to not create universal levels that create social lays

George Bereday -

1st editor of Comparative Education Review

descriptive - justification.

Need to specialize in area first and then can compare


Area - 1) Describe - collect data

2) Interpret - place data in socio-cultural context

Comparative 3) Juxtapose - place datas side by side - show similarities and differences

4) Compare - hypothesis regarding education in different cultural contexts


1) difficult to separate description from interpretation and perhaps a waste of time. They are simultaneous stages

2) impossible to specialize in all areas

3) hypothesis should come before research is done

4) doesn't all of contextual differences

5) labeled as inductive approach -

goes from specific to general

start with data and then build hypotheses.

Max Eckstein

Why get so involve din area studies

context is not as important

gather data to answer questions (opposite way than Bereday)


Edmund King and Arnold Anderson


All world systems have more common entities (Meyer)

Cummings thinks that there is not a single institution of education - but several that are developing along parallel paths

Development education being an outgrowth of global education

Adams and Theisen differentiate between basic and applied research

basic - research that is knowledge driven

applied - research that is solution driven - produce information that will abet the cause of reform or provide evidence about the success or failure of policies and programs already in place


1) lack of money to do those types of studies

2) allied with multinational and bilateral agencies that wanted to learn about a specific country

3) Belief that U.S. was a leader and there was not need to compare US to others. (This is part of modernistic paradigm)


comparative anatomy; Comparative literature; comparative law; comparative psychology; comparative social sciences; etc.


PARADIGM : CANON - Philosophical world views

T. S. Kuhn: defines paradigms "way a scientific /professional community views a field of study; identifies appropriate problems for study; specifies legitimate concept s and methods. How to interpret and apply data.


1) Learning and teaching

2) Productivity, legitimacy of knowledge

3) Access and use of education

4) Relation of education to other processes in society



1) What is education concerned with?

2) What values (positive and negative) are expressed?

Education always takes place in the context of values

3) Whose education? Who benefits?

4) What is being taught or not taught? To Whom? Age? Sex? Level?

5) What limits are found - diversity? Time? Equipment?

6) Positive or negative reinforcement? How many years?



STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONALISM - 1940s - early 1970s


Homeostatic view of the world. Things are in balance, in harmony

Strive towards overall equilibrium and internal coherence of established socio-political structure

John Dewey: education could select newer scientific technological/cultural forces that are producing change in society; estimate the direction in which they are moving and see what might be done by the schools to influence them.

Democracy should be the frame of reference for social change

Evolutionary view of the world

Social Darwinism (Spencer; Durkheim; Tonnies)

unilinear view of modernity

belief in progress

belief in superior and inferior (more advanced/less advanced) need for aid and assistance to be given to inferior conditions

things more forward in stages; progress comes with time.


Utilizes both homeostatic and evolutionary principles:

Harmonious relations between components of social systems. Emphasizes smooth, cumulative change

There is a balance mechanism in society: keeps the machine working

Adaptive changes (Parsons): external phenomenon promotes internal change

* Things evolve with no sudden changes

* Things are the way things are supposed to be -merit rises to the top

* Manifest change in society results from actions & always maintains balance

Democratic/Meritocractic principles. Equal opportunity for all in the expert society. (Parsons, Malinowski, Radcliff-Brown, Esinstadt, Durkeim)

However, "modern education" does not necessarily result in reduced inequality;

Education contributes to the society as a whole - totality by introducing child to "life" Dewey; Kandel


I.L. Kandel

Schools do not exist in a social vacuum

Societies create school systems to achieve social purposes

Human freedom is primary educational goal, but each citizen must accept a moral responsibility for use of personal freedom

If education is a social process, it must contribute to an understanding of the society which it serves.

Schools must provide a forum for open debate - must teach about social realities of the societies in which they are located

Schools are created by societies to serve aims established by societies.

Society changes first and schools follow (This opposes Dewey which claims that schools can lead in social change)

Human Capital Theory

Sputnik: Soviets were winning in space wars encouraged people claiming that we need to stress science and technology in schools - invest in schools, invest in tomorrow;

Prompted theories that we need an army of skilled people; technical assistance is required to encourage growth. (Schultz, Denison, Eisenstadt)

Ed. payoff is higher in less developed countries & primary level is most profitable

The return on human capital is greater than the return on physical capital: hence need for man-power planning.

Basic feature in national development and modernization theories

Underdeveloped were poor because they lacked human capital


Results don't always bear out the linkages: education - productivity - earnings.

Foster: Ghana - school is not panacea because entire structure is at fault. This "modern" society has anti-ed values that hinder the entire structure.

Pelot: Finland - snowmobile revolution. Increased dependency on snowmobiles resulted in the lass in adaptive flexibility and eventual loss in jobs.


Reduces casual factors to one single level of analysis

Deprivation Theory (Deficit) : doesn't succeed because is deprived

Attributed to poor people . . . countries

Attributed to former East European countries

National Character: Reduces adult behavior to early child rearing practices (Freud's interpretation)

Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor - due to severe toilet training practices; Mead - Samoans experience easy adolescence due to lax sex practices;

The Field of Psychology had little impact on comparative education because psychology is A-cultural (they want universal findings)

Pat Greenfield - culture and cognition in psychology - 1950s

D. Lerner - 1950s - modernization - development based on psychological characteristics

D. McClelland 1950s- need achievement is most important modern variable

P. Freire 1970s - change of psychological state - consciousness raising


progress is good

social change an education are related and will assist modernization

change occurs in unilinear stages, and occurs slowly

linked with economic theory of wages and labor

focuses on individuals: is micro-sociological

collective self-awareness or superimposed group identity; Required for existence


stresses internal causes of underdevelopment, that is lack of modernity in economic, social and political life within 3rd world.

Continuum from "undeveloped to developed"

Arguments for bilingual education revolve around modernization

Intervention and aid will quicken process

a) Weber: Protestant Ethics

b) McClellen/Rogers: Motivation

c) Inkeles: modernization

d) Frerie: Consciousness Raising

J. Coleman's report (Equality of educational Opportunity, 1966) in educational opportunity inferred that family background rather than school resources explained differences in learning of minority and majority cultures.

Disadvantaged offer explanations of why some cultural groups performed better academically than others

Education would acculturate "disadvantaged" into mainstream or "more advantaged" Therefore there is the need to 1) westernize; 2) industrialize; 3) modernize


Those who prescribe to functionalist theory int eh 1990s!

A. Bolino (1989) "an increase in human capital is best explained by the prevailing attitude in the U.S. that education is the surest approach to upward mobility"


S/F Paradigm - stayed without criticism until 1970s when discredited

1970 - Relativism was introduced in CER articles

Parsons - Grand Theory

Merton - Middle Range Theory

Foster - work done in Ghana.

Modernization/evolutionary theory

Human-Capital - Free market

Foster claimed to be objective "Scientific without ideological base"

Noah and Eckstein - 5 stages of development are S/F

C.A. Anderson

value free through statistics!

Need to study correlational relationships

Positivist Vs. Relativists: Archer vs. King/Holmes

Archer - Sociologist - Positivist - statistics work!

King/Holmes - relativists - cannot derive universal laws, etc.

Kazamias and Swartz - "Intellectual and Ideological Perspectives in Comparative Education"

Evolutionary approach

Need for field to help develop pedagogy in other countries - U.S. based

School is society - primarily British vs. American view

R. Cole "Comparative Education - Prescription and Practices"

increased attention for unity of methodology and taxonomy

methodology - repeated topics in field makes for reliability

need to acknowledge biases within field

need for more historical orientations

Contemporary Educational Cartography: Conflict/Critical Theories, Ethnology, Phenomenology, Post-Structuralists


Interpretations from late 60's - 80's

Challenged structural/functionalism

conflict is inherent in society

stratification results from internal institutions, i.e. education, govt etc.

conflict is necessary for change


Karl Marx - history proceeds by means of a historical dialectic

historical dialectic: clash of opposing ideas

(thesis vs. antithesis - which leads to a new resulting order or synthesis)

Economic (material) order determines political and social relationships

History, current situations and the future are determined by economic struggle. This struggle was termed dialectical materialism

V. I. Lenin - applied dialectical materialism to international politics. Saw the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeois (class on class). Exploitation of nations was done through imperialism. Just as there is a domestic class struggle, there will be an internationally based class struggle.


emphasis on rapid social change ridden with conflict

conflict is positive for this is the way the world

progresses and changes - evolves through stages of growth

There is a constant struggle to determine which social, class, or interest group, will emerge as victor over the others.

Everyone has potential for achieving all things

Inequality is due to social class

Stratification results from internal institutions, i.e. education, gov't. Etc

Focus on structural modes of production, trade, linkages. Is macro-sociological

Schermerhorn; Apple: dialectical power struggle - Education is a scarce resource

Education becomes the focal point for conflict over access to and control of education as a resource

LEGITIMATION THEORY: curricula embody ideals/values of dominant groups in society in both over and in forms of Hidden Curriculum (Apple). Why are certain curriculum found in some schools and not in others?

School reproduce inequality in society (Apple)

Karabel/Halsey - schools reinforce inferior position

Education provides "hidden services" to certain classes, "hiding social selection under the guise of tracking".

SORTING PROCESS: schools and I.Q. tests sort students into different tracts (Spring)

Marxist emphasis on power, exploitation and contradictions

Ralf Dahrendorf: haves vs. have nots

Max Weber: conflict between groups

Randall Collins: conflict between ethnic groups; Diploma Disease

Michael Apple: conflict between sexes

Tom LaBelle & Peter White; language policy maintains inequality

Joel Spring: education as element of exploitation

Modernization - contempt for diversity; element of human cruelty. It defies power & mobilization of resources for selfish or ideological ends

R. Farrell - wrote about the failure of modernization. Criticized Coleman's conclusions

Stresses: current system of inequality begets further inequality

S/F research and policy based on it merely describes and justifies an inequitable system

What should be highlighted - forms of cultural imperialism by which means are used by powerful groups to subsume those less powerful

Where structural/functionalism viewed education system as offering opportunities for mobility for individuals, conflict stressed the role of education in maintaining a system of structured social inequality


HCT ignores structural source of poverty & ignores socio-economic sources of inequality

CRITICAL AND NEO-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY - education as critical social action as well as education to assist with the struggle for hope and human emancipation (Henry Giroux)

Schools play a leading role in rebuilding the social order; teachers have responsibility to prepare students for a newly conceived social order; students must be taught about he social groups and races that control society so that they can be prepared for their role in the transformation of society. (Giroux)

Agrees with Dewey that education occurs in schools and throughout society at large (Giroux)


Functionalist; NEED MORE SCHOOLS

1) decline of traditional socializing mechanism (family and community)

2) need for more intense cognitive skills

3) moral and cultural consensus (Durkheim) primarily for immigrants

4) keeping with democratic and egalitarian ideals;

increased education equals broader minded individuals


Capitalist, factory owners urged for more schools are a result of industrialization. Wanted schools for (Bowles & Gintis)

1) Discipline: which will help in factory work: punctuality and discipline

2) Means of control - not for expanded intellectuality

Michael Katz (The Irony of early School Reform): Schools have been imposed on lower class by upper class


Bloom (1987), Hirsch (1987) and Schlesinger (1992) , Bestor (1985)

Schools should conserve society's treasures and masterpieces.

Proper purpose of school is to recreate the Euro-American heritage in each student regardless of personal heritage. This is what is meant by the vision of the educated person.

Curriculum focuses on student learning structured sequence of courses that are organized into individual subject units. All students learn same content.


Counts (1962) - schools should change society.

Dewey (1916) - schools should help student recognize that the experiences they have will allow them to control the types of experiences they will have tin the future.

Paulo Freire (1970) schools should help students become active citizens sot hey can change society. Students should learn how to cooperate with others to eradicate social problems.

Sergiovanni (1994) and Etzioni (1988) believe many of societies problem stem from breakdown of families and neighborhoods.

Curriculum teaches students to be committed to important ideas beyond themselves.


Ethnic and cultural groups are important for change

Consensus among deliberate organized conscious effort to construct a different culture (not whole system)

This occurs during ethnic revival, or counter-culture movements


Anarchistic: radical social transformations

Transference to new world without telling how to get there (Illich; Shulgin)

Descholled Society: Ivan Illich and Everett Reimer - criticize ideology of schooling

emphasis on adult education. Not realistic for children

process of liberation away from manipulation must come by replacing modern schools with "new formal educational institutions " which are convivial in nature


Everything is open to interpretation

Educational efforts to empower minority groups by encouraging individual expression

Policy incorporates perspectives of ethnic groups, seeking their participation in policy-making for a more relevant and equitable education (C. Delgado-Gaitan; G. Lopez; S. Velasco)

Without dynamic participation, ethnic groups unwittingly perpetuate their subordinated position in society by accepting a system that reinforces an imposed inferiority

Criticizes conflict theory - "experts" of a dominant culture are still directing the education of subordinate groups. Though changes crafted by these experts may be in the interest of a minority group, the minority group lacks self-direction

Criticizes both S/F and conflict - both are too removed from daily interaction to be useful in addressing complex community needs

Phenomenologists - argue for educational system within dominant government structures, more analytical and reflective assessment in which individual actors are empowered to construct their own social history

Macro analysis - Conflict Perspectives

Micro Analysis - Interpretive Perspectives

A. Touraine challenges critical theory - it makes actors passive recipients of cultural and historical order evolving around them. Instead he places individual or community in control, capable of creating an ongoing reality, as subject rather than object of one's own experience

Interpretive - each ethnic group encourages to find and use its own voice rather than allow non-minority professionals to speak for them. Requires inquiry focused on individual perspectives, recognizing the expertise of these previously disregarded, such as bilingual teachers, parents and students.

Wallace - cultural change

Mike Kouar - in Kenya

Art Pickard - in Indonesia

Vu Duc Bung - in Vietnam


R. Heyman - need to look at sub-cultures

V. Maseman - Ethnology with critical interpretations

D. Foley


Paulston: Some want to merge S/F and critical to form a better view

Epstein is critical about such a synthesis because two points of view are irreconcilable and cannot be combined.

Use differences in ideology constructionism not to cause downfall and destroy our field

Carnoy - agrees - must mention power conflict

Foster - can tolerate few different opinion be all views are there to define status quo!

Field is not quite as polarized as Epstein claims

Maseman: Epstein is biased for he is calling for a free-market scholarship (Marxist perspective)

Holmes: relativist - must look at context and culture in question. Attacks Epstein - unclear and inconsistent nature he doesn't determine between ideological and epistemological differences

MILLENNIUM EDUCATIONAL CARTOGRAPHY: New Approaches to Educational Inquiry: Feminists, Post-Structuralists, Postmodernist


Countering traditional functionalist/Marxist and structural/functionalist perspective

pursue education based on international capital and patriarchal control with its dangerous agenda,

which attempts to create and manipulate an individualized, fragmented and disposable labor force.

POSITIONALITY - important aspects of our identity (gender, race, class, age) are markers of relational positions rather than essential qualities

Their effect and implications change according to context

Knowledge is valid when it comes from an acknowledgment of the knower's specific position in any context, one always defined by gender, race, class, etc. (Tetreault, 1993; Farganis; 1986; Code, 1991; S. Harding, 1991)

Feminist economics - more reflective analysis - use of "techno-structure" as a social mechanism of control, one that makes no distinction between life-enhancing and life-destroying production and consumption.

A feminist critical reflection is essential in assessing the social costs of military and structural violence and their impact on the confining low economic status of even educated women.

Teachers must play a socially transformative role in their classroom by helping students to ‘deconstruct" the dominant group's vision of social reality and justice and to replace dominant conceptions of knowledge with visions of social reality based on their own experience of it.

Feminist theories: Peggy Antrobus, Dale Spender and Birgit Brock-Utne; Nelly Stromquist "Romancing the State: Gender and Power in Education (1995)

Relational power occurs within a micro level - particularly among relationships that emerge within the family (adding Stromquist with Michel Foucault)



Feminization of Poverty: is becoming increasingly structure and impossible for women to escape the cycle of crushing poverty in Africa

Liberal Feminist - dominated by the sex-role socialization paradigm. Considers that the social system is essentially just and that all deviations from "desirable' conditions - educational equality included - are due to a lack of information about he problems facing women and lack of adequate legislation to deal with them.

Radical Feminism - considers the main cause of subordination from power relations based on sexual differences.

State is key agent in keeping subordination

Socialist Feminism - interconnection between ideological and economic forces in which patriarchy and capitalism reinforce each other. Oppression is reinforced by market economy. The school becomes a site for reproduction of women's oppression as workers and women

(Wolpe, 1978; Deem, 1978; Kelly & Nihlen,m 1982; Arnot, 1984; Yates, 1986; Weiner, 1986; David, 1980)



Maps reveal information about space by showing that information scaled within the boundaries of another space. Criteria for teaching each theory.

Pierre Bourdieu - habitus - "one's habitus is that set of predispositions, internalized from the social structure and external environment where one is situated, that influence without strictly predetermining one's practices, habits, beliefs and behaviors"

Richard Rorty - metanarratives are "the theoretical crust of convention that we all carry and tend to universalize."

Jean-Francois Lyotard - distrust of modernist metanarratives

Modernism - when we clarify and categorize, we produce levels. Gaps are also produced which means some things are left out. Post-modernists wants this to change.

Ours is a world, no longer of reality, but of simulation, where it is no longer possible to separate the real from the image. Postmodernism, helps understand these expanding conceptual presentations and interpretations.

"How do practices we invent to discover our truth impact our lives?"

"Postmodernism must reflect a description of itself as embodying a set of timeless ideals contrary to those of modernism; it must insist on being recognized as a set of viewpoints of a time, justifiable only within its own time" (Nicholson, 1990)

Postmodern discussions address the history of modernist society/culture as it was ingrained and justified by a worldview obsessed with time and history

Postmodernisms liberating influences transcend not only combined time and history but combined space and geography. Space becomes more important than time

"Postmodern society explodes all boundaries, regions and distinctions between high and low culture, appearance and reality, and just about every other binary opposition maintained by traditional philosophy and social theory"

Knowledge is socially constructed and reflects human interests, values and action (Coude, 1991; Habermas, 1971; Giroux, 1983; Foucault, 1972; S. Harding, 1991; Rorty, 1989)

Reason itself is politicized in such a matrix to the extent that people always reason from some politicalized situation in life.

Truth is the absence of concealment. Be aware of the possibilities of exclusions

Michel Foucault - need to move beyond determinism and universalism

Education is produced and transmitted under the control, dominance of a few great eco-political institutions (university, army, media).

Postmodernist is concerned with the pursuit of experience rather than the outcome or the goal, since all we really live in and experience is the present. The journey is all that matters.

LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF SELF (class, time, gender, body) (I. Epstein)

(1) Class, Time and Transformation

Structuralist applications of Neo-Marxist - schools function to promote class conflict & prepare students to enter a hierarchically differentiated labor force on the basis of their class standing. Legitimation theory fits into this category. Relies on progress continuum. In this respect, time is linear.

POSTMODERN PERSPECTIVE: View time as timeless - in constant state of flux

A linear world defines who we have been and where we wish to go

A timeless world make no distinction between past and present, between self and other

Flux world does not explain how diverse voices can communicate with one another

(2) Ethnicity and Social Space

dominant/subordinate group (Schermerhorn; Writ; LaBelle/White; Ogbu)

Missing discussion on how and why change occurs once dominant/subordinate positions are initially achieved;

What happens when more than two ethnic groups interact: ignoring time/space

(3) Gender, Disability and the Body

Feminist Theory - existence of gender inequality and social, economic and political practices that reinforce such inequality. - largely ignored in theoretical

Sociology of Special education - largely ignored in theoretical literature

Need to go beyond holistically analysis - must perceive time in one or more modes: things may exist independently or in relationships with other different settings

Inability to conceive of social space as being relational and dynamic hinders our range of perception regarding group conflict and group interaction

Unwillingness to consider the way in which the body is treated on everyday basis limits ability to examine issues of identity, personhood, social construction and potential transformation.


all ideas are socially situated and positioned

The general accepted, standard knowledge in use in any society at any time is somehow shaped and developed to reflect the values and priorities of dominate groups in society

All knowledge is changing in the context of relationships among gender, races, social classes, political interests and economic interests

While the craft of modernity and Postmodernity are the same, the array of materials prefers subtle variations from the modernists style

Peter McLaren - Selections from "Life in Schools": more than self-reflectivity which snubs modern perceptions of reality (ludic post-modernism)

skeptical postmodernism - relinquishing of norms of current reality as well as a tolerance for a range of meanings without advocating any one of them - critiques the looking into everything without supporting anything

Organic postmodernism - avoids logical skepticism and explanatory nihilism - mix in environmental/ecological criticism which is essential for validating reality. Speak from a multiplicity of locations, without calling any one of these "home"

WE are not there to speak for them, but to work in solidarity with them, within a discourse of mutuality and respect. We are not there to narratives their reality but to engage their world and ours and in doing so forge a language of social criticism and also a language of social dreaming.

Need to move beyond representation to participation

Teachers and students are all subject to ideological dictates of the dominant group. They are also active agents for change.



Passivity is being active

Critical assess environment to provide full understanding

Consciousness Raising

Learning should be rigorous and joyful and should lead to self-realization


GRAMSCI - hegemony - how societal institutions maintained their power

Frankfurt School of Critical Theory - Critical/Conflict Theory of inequality

Critical Theory - both a reaction to and a pragmatic response to educational problems.

Relates schools to economic issues

Schools encompass subordinated relationships that are both reproduced and produced through authority, power and control issues

Schools produce different cultures

individuals and groups of people to recollect or recapture a past or history (which is understood particularly from the perspective of human oppression and suffering).


Sociocultural learning - or the context matters;

Zone of proximal development - interaction with friends in this context matters;

relationship between though and language - words and ideas used in this context matters

It's fun to talk with a friend while we learn


DEWEY: Accept the child where the child is

GIROUX : Idea of correspondence - schooling functions to reproduce the class structure of the workplace. Once that is understood we can find that while our roots are in resistance, it is time to move to the possible that lies within each of us. That is done by focusing our critical lens on curriculum which is generated by teachers and students and REFLECTS THEIR REAL WORLD. Teachers are intellectuals and this is positive

PETER MCLAREN: Good teachers and learners start with a teachable heart. Challenges each to be courageous moral leaders who understand how knowledge language, experience and power are central to our society and classrooms.

MEM FOX - Caring counts

JAMES CUMMINS: Coercive relations of power don't work; collaborative relation do. Concept of empowerment

STEPHEN KRASHEN - Meaning matters. Go through 5 stages in thinking and generating new ideas - how do we empower - in the same way.


1) post-anthropocentric - living in harmony with nature rather than a separateness from nature that leads to control and exploitation

2) post-competitive sense of relationships - cooperation rather than coercive and individualistic;

3) post-militaristic - conflict resolved by development of art of peaceful negotiation;

4) post-patriarchal - gender equality;

5) post-Eurocentric;

6) post-scientistic belief

7) post-disciplinary concept of scholarship with an ecologically interdependent view rather than mechanistic perspective of controlling the universe

8) post-nationalistic - individual is concerned with welfare of earth first and foremost

World Systems Theory to Globalization / Localization; Dependency

1960s Latin American theory that attempts to explain the lack of development as a worldwide phenomena and as the historical consequence of unequal relations between industrialized and non-industrialized nations.

Model provides new way to look at the world and suggest how to achieve social change

inequality of economic relations help continue colonial influence and the growth of international capitalism;

external causes (international capitalism) causes underdevelopment

Demonstrates that problems that cause undevelopment are not all indigenous

After the decline of the colonial era - new independent nations emerged.

These nations primary goal was to become "developed".

Advocation for development came from the elites of these nations and from the already "developed nations" who wanted to embark on trade relations with the new nations.

MANTRA - the new must develop to be equal with already established.

Dependency/Liberation Theory claims that in reality, this form of development perpetuates the inequality of subordination of the new to the old.

1) Latin America/Africa unequal trade terms raw materials for manufactured goods

Example: Nigeria and coca: grown and processed in Nigeria, manufactured in England, and then resold as candy in Nigeria at exorbitant costs)

2) Legacy of colonialism left former colonies economically weak

3) Growth of International capitalism and the world-market economy

Developed nations to undeveloped nations; System based on inequality, exploitation and profit


Occurs within a single country as one sector of the population, primarily the rural areas becomes DEPENDENT on the large urban centers.

Developed urban to undeveloped rural: Inequality and exploitation of urban to rural

Process of internal dependency

1) System based on ethnic group inequality,

2) territorial separation of groups (urban/rural)

3) inequality in politics and inequality in economics. (Chilcote, Van den Berghe)

Maintained by elites who profit and are rewarded by kickbacks from developed nations. (Carnoy, B/G, Dore) (Case-Dunn and Rubinson)

The Charade for Development

1) infiltration of capitalism distorts progress with profit (Carnoy - Bowles/Gintis)

2) neo-colonialism: new country's autonomy is a mirage.

Paper control (possessed own govt, army, flag, but economic and socio-cultural control remained with mother country) (Carnoy/B/G/Bock)

Illusion of independence. In reality, maintained all colonial inequalities and inequities

3) development via Western expertise & aid (costly) - another form neo-colonialism.

relationships that emerge are based on exploitation. Underdeveloped were drawn into world market system in which they would forever be underdogs.

Why underdeveloped never developed:

Psychological reductionism: intervention would counteract internal inadequacies: i.e. ignorance, lack of motivation, drive, achievement, and personality.

Conflict: elite class became mediators with developed countries

Dependency: Underdeveloped accepted above points; but process just bound and drew further into dependent relationships. Dependency became necessary for their survival.

Educational Dependency

Education - way in which the undeveloped can become developed.

1) Colonial heritage in many former colonies persists today in education system;

2) Dependency actually increasing intellectually because of power of industrialized nations and increased research and development activities;

3) Colonial languages continue to predominate in former colonies;

4) Industrialized nations produce large bulk of intellectual books, journals, etc. - these are in western languages and 3rd world nations must import books and ideas; (Soviet books in Cuba that discuss snow!)

5) Educational technology explored from industrialized nations;

6) Educational curriculum in 3rd world is leftover from colonial times;

7) International aid agencies dominate funding for education and research in 3rd world;

8) Strong ties between 3rd world and industrialized nations.


Development necessary for advancement: fill a void that exists

Introduce aid through money, technology and education

Impediments to development: weakness in acquiring capital; shortage of skilled labor and irrational domestic policies

Impediments can be overcome through free trade and foreign investment supplemented by loans and foreign aid

Goal: make significant changes in international politics to achieve economic equality.

Reform of current market system

Marxists believe that entire capitalist-based system must be overturned and replaced with domestic and international socialist system.

"Gatekeepers"; Self-fulfilling prophesy: educational credentials/certification gap

Schooling does socialize youth to an expanded level of knowledge and competence but changes do not persist for long after the students leave schools and are confronted with the contradictory realities of the external adult political and occupational structure.

Allocation Theory - Individuals learn the values and competencies appropriate to the performance of the roles allocated to them by right of the schooling they have received after they have assumed the role of their future place in society. Socialize low-status youth to incompetency

Legitimation theory - Schools plays far more critical function than simply sorting and allocating people to fixed numbers of social positions: a) schools transmit important modern competencies; b) these competencies directly influence the performance of adult roles; c) in aggregate this process produces desired social change.


Comes by having complete control of the country and the economic resources so development becomes self- controlled and self-serving (Carnoy/Frerie)

Problem: mere enlightenment will open world, but societal constraints will render them unable to break out of dependent relationships. This leads to frustration, anger-confusion, alienation and apathy.

Freire - through a language of critical social discourse of their own making, people can literally liberate themselves from all forces of social oppression and domination; languages of self-empowerment

Examples of South's Assertiveness

Cartels: international trading agreement among produces who hope to control the supply and price of a primary product


World is interdependence. World-wide system of cultural and economic dependency

World economic market creates convergence

Stratification of economic roles creates divergence

Continued dominance of European Languages (4 out of 5 of U.N. languages)

Influence of North evidence in 3rd world

International aid network spreads influence of North ideas and reforms

Role of universities in South is to link with North/Western world - spreads North/western ideas

Book publishing dominated by North - books exported to South

Brain drain of talented South workers to North

Research coined out in South after benefits North

Cuba was dependent on USA, then USSR, now Florida!

East Germany was dependent on USSR, now West Germany

Meyer/Rameriz: social system (including education and politics) is tied with economics: factors affect organizational structure, ideologies, and effect on the individual.

This is a form of MACRO-ANALYSIS (Meyer/Rameriz)

Case-Dunn and Rubinson

World system taken as a whole

Core-periphery countries

Continued periphery exploitation

2 major forms of class struggle will exist - the struggle between capital and labor and the struggle between core and periphery, will reinforce each other and reduce the profitability of private capital accumulation in the system as a whole.


NORTH:slow to respond to development needs of South reluctant to cooperate

North does not want to give up power & loose control if South becomes self-reliant

May become dependent itself if South is self-reliant: oil / coffee crisis of the 70s/80s

SOUTH: Stays the same and continues to be:

Economically disadvantaged, dependent and exploited; socially disadvantaged; overpopulated, illiterate, hungry, disease problems; socio-economic and political problems remain fundamental for development concerns

Are there self-reliance in our inter-dependent world? Singapore, Taiwan, Venezuela, Costa Rica


Few newly industrializing countries are exporting a diversity of manufactured products

(Costa Rica, Thailand)

Population explosion is beginning to ease in some countries which effects social problems and infrastructure which in turn help the country towards development (psychological reductionism argument)

deological and epistemological differences