Tube Feeding Tutorial
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Tube Feeding Glossary

activity factor  a factor used in the equation to determine energy needs that takes into consideration activity level (eg. ambulatory vs. nonambulatory).
anabolic state  a physiological state of building tissue.
aspiration pneumonia  the presence of GI contents, such as formula, in the lungs.
atrophy the breaking down of a tissue or organ.
basal energy expenditure energy expended by the body at complete rest.
bolus feeding  a feeding of up to 480 ml of formula within a 30 - 60 minute time frame.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) the amount of nitrogen associated with urea in the blood. High values are associated with dehydration and compromised kidney function.
catabolism the breaking down of tissue or molecules
continuous drip feeding the provision of formula in an ongoing manner in small amounts.
dietary fiber  undigestible carbohydrate.
drug-nutrient interaction a reaction between a medication and a nutrient that may have adverse outcomes for drug action or nutritional status.
dumping syndrome a physiologic response related to the rapid emptying of the stomach contents into the small intestine. Water is drawn into the intestines resulting in nausea, cramping, and diarrhea. The concommitant drop in blood volume causes a sympathetic nervous system response.
dysphagia  difficulty swallowing.
emulsification  the mixing of two substances that are not normally mixable with the use of a substance that can mix with each.
enteral nutrition nutrient intake via the gastrointestinal tract. 
enterocutaneous fistula an opening between the intestines and the skin.
esophagostomy an opening created into the esophagus.
free water available water; unbound water.
gastrostomy an opening created into the stomach.
glutamine an amino acid that serves as a nitrogen shuttle and a fuel to the GI tract.
hematocrit volume of the blood that is composed of red blood cells. A high hematocrit indicates dehydration.
high biological value protein  protein that is efficiently used by the body. Animal proteins (except gelatin) are high biological value proteins.
hydration status fluid status.
hydrolysis the splitting apart of a molecule with water.
hydrolyzed formula predigested formula.
hypertonic having a higher osmolality than the comparison solution.
hypoalbuminemia   low blood albumin concentration.
ileus paralysis of at least part of the GI tract.
indirect calorimetry the estimation of energy expenditure via the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.
injury factor  factor in the calculation of energy needs that accounts for the patient's state of stress.
isotonic having approximately the same osmolality of the comparison solution.
jejunostomy an opening created into the jejunum.
lactose intolerance an inability to digest lactose because of insuffient lactase enzyme resulting in cramping, bloating, and/or diarrhea.
medium chain triglycerides (MCT) triglycerides with fatty acids consisting of 8-10 carbons in the carbon chain.
modular formula a formula consisting of a singular macronutrient. A complete diet can be formulated by mixing modular formulations.
nasoduodenal a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the duodenum.
nasogastric a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the stomach.
nasojejunal a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the jejunum.
normoglycemia  normal blood glucose concentration.
NPO Latin: non per os; nothing by mouth.
obligatory fluid output  the minimum amount of urine output necessary to excrete waste products.
osmolality  particles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
osmotic gradient  the difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane.
ostomy  a surgically created opening.
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) the insertion of a feeding tube into the stomach which is pulled out of the body through an incision in the abdominal wall.
polymeric formula an enteral formula composed of intact macronutrients.
portal system  the vessels that connect to the liver.
pulmonary function   lung function.
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances; the United States' standard for adequate consumption of nutrients by healthy individuals.
renal solute load (RSL) the sum total of materials that must be excreted by the kidneys.
regurgitation  the backflow of GI contents.
residual volume  the volume of enteral formula left in the stomach.
residue undigested materials.
saline  salt solution.
sepsis infection.
soluble fiber  dietary fiber that can dissolve in water.
tolerance  the degree to which symptoms arise from a formula infusion.
transnasal through the nose.
transpyloric  through the pyloric sphincter.
tube feeding an enteral feeding utilizing a tube that delivers nutrients directly into the GI tract.