Parenteral Nutrition - Glossary of Terms
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activity factor   a factor used in the equation to determine energy needs that takes into consideration activity level (e.g. ambulatory vs. nonambulatory)
anabolism   a physiological state of building tissue.
atrophy   the wasting away of a tissue or organ due to prolonged inactivity.
basal energy expenditure (BEE)   energy expended by the body at complete rest.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)   the amount of nitrogen associated with urea in the blood. High values are associated with dehydration and compromised kidney function.
bolus feeding   a feeding of up to 480 ml of formula within a 30 - 60 minute time frame.
branched chain amino acids (BCAA)   leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
carnitine   an intracellular lipid carrier molecule.
catabolism   the breaking down of tissue or molecules.
continuous drip feeding   the provision of formula in an ongoing manner in small amounts.
cyclic TPN   TPN administration regime whereby nutrients are infused at night, but not during the day.
dietary fiber   indigestible carbohydrate.
diuresis   water release from the kidneys.
drug-nutrient interaction   a reaction between a medication and a nutrient that may have adverse outcomes for drug action or nutritional status.
dumping syndrome   a physiologic response related to the rapid emptying of the stomach contents into the small intestine. Water is drawn into the intestines resulting in nausea, cramping, and diarrhea. The concomitant drop in blood volume causes a sympathetic nervous system response.
dysphagia   difficulty swallowing.
electrolyte   mineral which conducts electricity when dissolved in water.
emulsification   the mixing of two substances that are not normally mixable with the use of a substance that can mix with each.
enteral nutrition   nutrient intake via the gastrointestinal tract.
enteritis   inflammation of the intestinal tract.
enterocutaneous fistula   an opening between the intestines and the skin.
enteropathy   disease of the intestinal tract.
esophagostomy   an opening created into the esophagus.
fistula   an abnormal opening between two organs.
free water   available water; unbound water.
gastrostomy   an opening created into the stomach.
glutamine   an amino acid that serves as a nitrogen shuttle and a fuel to the GI tract.
gut hypertrophy   growth/regeneration of the GI tract.
hematocrit   volume of the blood that is composed of red blood cells. A high hematocrit indicates dehydration.
hemothorax   presence of blood in the chest cavity.
high biological value protein   protein that is efficiently used by the body. Animal proteins (except gelatin) are high biological value proteins.
hydration status   fluid status.
hydrolysis   the splitting apart of a molecule with water.
hydrolyzed protein   predigested protein (amino acids).
hyperemesis gravidarum   morning sickness.
hypertonic   having a higher osmolality than the comparison solution.
hypoalbuminemia   low blood albumin concentration.
hypokalemia   low blood potassium level.
hypophosphatemia   low blood phosphorus level.
ileus   paralysis of at least part of the GI tract.
indirect calorimetry   the estimation of energy expenditure via the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.
infarction   the cutting off of blood supply.
inflammatory bowel disease   pathology of the intestines such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Can impair digestion.
injury factor   factor in the calculation of energy needs that accounts for the patient's state of stress.
isotonic   having approximately the same osmolality of the comparison solution.
jejunostomy   an opening created into the jejunum.
ketones   molecules created from fatty acid breakdown.
lactose intolerance   an inability to digest lactose because of insufficient lactase enzyme resulting in cramping, bloating, and/or diarrhea.
lipid nephrosis   condition of fat buildup in the kidneys.
medium chain triglycerides (MCT)   triglycerides with fatty acids consisting of 8-10 carbons in the carbon chain.
mesenteric artery thrombosis   blood clot in an artery in the abdominal cavity.
metabolic acidosis   low blood pH associated with a metabolic disturbance in the production of bicarbonate.
metabolic alkalosis   high blood pH associated with a metabolic disturbance in the production of bicarbonate.
modular formula   a formula consisting of a singular macronutrient. A complete diet can be formulated by mixing modular formulations.
nasoduodenal   a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the duodenum.
nasogastric   a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the stomach.
nasojejunal   a feeding tube that enters the nose and ends in the jejunum.
normoglycemia   normal blood glucose concentration.
NPO   Latin: non per os; "nothing by mouth."
nutritional recovery syndrome   a condition that occurs when a malnourished person is feed too aggressively resulting in hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and lactose intolerance.
obligatory fluid output   the minimum amount of urine output necessary to excrete waste products.
osmolality   particles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
osmolarity   particles of a solute per liter of solvent.
osmotic gradient   the difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane.
ostomy   a surgically created opening.
pancreatitis   inflammation of the pancreas, which results in severe pain upon secretion of digestive juices.
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)   the insertion of a feeding tube into the stomach which is pulled out of the body through an incision in the abdominal wall.
pneumothorax   presence of air in the chest cavity.
polymeric formula   an enteral formula composed of intact macronutrients.
portal system   the blood vessels that connect to the liver.
pulmonary function   lung function.
RDA   Recommended Dietary Allowances; the United States' standard for adequate consumption of nutrients by healthy individuals.
rebound hypoglycemia   low blood glucose due to a slow reaction of insulin levels to an abrupt cessation of a dextrose infusion.
renal solute load (RSL)   the amount of wastes that must be excreted by the kidneys.
regurgitation   the backflow of GI contents.
renal threshold   the maximum amount of a substance that can be present in the bloodstream without spilling out into the urine.
residual volume   the volume of enteral formula left in the stomach.
residue   undigested materials.
saline   salt solution.
sepsis   infection.
short bowel syndrome   characteristic symptoms, including impaired digestion and absorption, resulting from removal of a portion of the small intestine.
soluble fiber   dietary fiber that can dissolve in water.
thrombosis   blood clot.
tolerance   the degree to which symptoms arise from a formula infusion.
trace element   mineral needed in small amounts.
transferrin   a protein that carries iron in the blood.
transitional diets   a series of diets that run the gamut from very easily digested (clear liquid) through a regular diet.
transnasal   through the nose.
transpyloric   through the pyloric sphincter.
tube feeding   an enteral feeding utilizing a tube that delivers nutrients directly into the GI tract.
turbidity   condition of being cloudy.