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Structure of Matter

8-3-a. Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
5-1-b Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules.

  • Structure of atoms & molecules (molecular modeling kits)
  • The scale of atoms & molecules - Powers of ten
  • On-line simulations of atoms & molecules
  • The variety of atoms - Periodic table
  • Evidence of electons - Static electricity (balloon, water stream, Van de Graaf Generator, electoscope)

8-3-b. Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements, and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements
5-1-b Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules.
5-1-f Students know differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are used to separate mixtures and identify compounds.
5-1-i. Students know the common properties of salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl).

4-4-b. Students know how to identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz, calcite, feldspar, mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals by using a table of diagnostic properites.

8-3-c. Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.

  • Videomicrsocopy of crystal formation  (silver, salt, alum, etc.)
  • Polymer activity:  Polymers (Polyvinyl alcohol or white glue and sodium borate decahydrate (e.g. Twenty Mule Team
    Borax“ Laundry Booster))

8-3-d. Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion.
5-1-g Students know properties of solid, liquid, and gaseous substances, such as sugar (C6H12O6), water (H2O), helium (He), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2).

  • Properites of matter
  • States of matter - animation
  • Common substances
    • Water (electrolysis, surface tension demonstrations)
    • Oxygen (flame demonstration)
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon Dioxide (fire extinguiser demonstration)
    • Sugar - (Diet/regular soft drink density demonstration)

8-3-e. Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.

  • Model of molecular activity (BBs)
  • Role play: states of matter
  • Crushing can, air pressure fountain demonstrations

8-3-f. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.


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