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1983 1984 1987
CELL QUESTION 1983: L. PETERSON/ECHS Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through by each of the following processes. a. Active Transport b. Passive Transport STANDARDS: FLUID-MOSAIC MODEL: Max. = 9 points __ Singer/Nicholson or "differs from" Davson/Danielli __ Dynamic __ Phospholipid Bilayer __ Hydrophilic heads/hydrophobic tails and explanation __ Polar/Nonpolar __ Proteins - intrinsic/extrinsic __ Permeases (active + passive) __ Pores or apertures __ Functional "R" Groups __ Glycoproteins or carbohydrates (recognition) __ Diagrams appropriately used with explanation __ Selectivity TRANSPORT Max = 9 points PASSIVE TRANSPORT: __ Definition of Diffusion __ Osmosis __ Size of molecule / polarity __ Facilitated Diffusion __ Function of pores ACTIVE TRANSPORT: __ Definition __ ATP __ ATPase __ Na+/K+ Pump __ Substances diffuse in-need transport out __ Carrier molecules and specificity
CELL QUESTION 1984: L. PETERSON/ECHS Describe the structure of a generalized eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell. STANDARDS: STRUCTURE, as part of the eukaryotic cell: DESCRIPTION: (1/2 point each) (1 point each) __ Cell Wall __ Cellulose __ Cell Membrane __ Protein/phospholipid or phospholipid bilayer __ Cytoplasm __ Fluid with dissolved substances __ Vacuole __ Protein/phospholipid or water __ Mitochondria __ Cristae, folding convolutions __ Ribosomes __ Two Subunits __ Golgi Bodies __ Phospholipid/protein, cisternae, vesicles __ Chloroplasts __ Stroma, grana, thylakoids __ Lysosomes __ Phospholipid/protein membrane or digestive enzyme __ Nucleus __ Double nuclear membrane or envelope __ Nucleolus __ RNA present, fibrillar __ Chromosome __ Double strand, DNA and Protein __ Plasmodesmata __ Cytoplasmic bridge __ Peroxisomes __ Membrane Bound __ Flagella __ 9 + 2 __ Microtubules, microfilaments __ Tubulin protein/actin protein MAX. = 4 points MAX. = 7 points TOTAL MAXIMUM = 10 points II. STRUCTURE COMPARISONS/DIFFERENCES of a simple cell and a complex cell. (2 points each pair / structure and comparison) __ Cell Wall __ No cellulose; murein present __ Cell Membrane __ No cholesterol __ Membrane-bound organelles absent __ Name one organelle __ OR AT LEAST 2: vacuole, mitochondria, __ Absent nucleus, E.R., lysosome, peroxisome, chloroplast __ AT LEAST 2: microtubules, microfilaments, __ Absent plasmodesmata __ Ribosomes __ Smaller, few, free floating __ Nuclear membrane __ Absent __ Genetic material __ Single, no protein, circular, plasmids __ Flagella __ No 9 + 2 BONUS: Elaboration: evolution, size, two additional structures and comparisons for each structure = one point each MAXIMUM = 10 points in Section II.
AP CELL QUESTION 1987: L. PETERSON/ECHS Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cyle. Do not include meiosis. STANDARDS: PART I. DESCRIPTION OF MITOSIS IN ANIMAL CELLS: Max. = 7 points General __ division of nucleus __ daughter cells acquire the same number and kinds of chromosomes as in the mother cell __ process for growth or repair or asexual reproduction __ list phases in correct order (P,M,A.T) Prophase (one point each / max. 2) __ centrioles move apart __ chromosomes condense __ nucleolus is no longer visible __ nuclear envelope disappears __ asters and spindle form Metaphase __ sister chromatids (chromosomes) are in a line at the midpoint of the spindle Anaphase (one point each / max. 2) __ centromeres uncouple (split) __ chromosomes move to opposite poles __ microtubules involved in the push/pull movement Telophase (one point each / max. 2) __ reverse of prophase __ nuclear envelope reforms __ nucleolus reappears __ chromosomes become diffuse __ spindle and aster disappear __ centrioles are replicated Points less frequently mentioned: __ function of centrioles __ definition of kinetochores __ description of polar microtubules and kinetochore microtubules __ definition of chromatids *In order to obtain a score of 10, there must be points in all three sections. If only two sections are written the maximum is 9. PART II. CYTOKINESIS: __ division of cytoplasm __ formation of a cleavage furrow __ occurrence of cytokinesis in the cell cycle Points less frequently mentioned: __ function of cytokinesis __ dense belt of actin and myosin microfilaments __ purse-string mechanism __ furrow occurs at location of equatorial plane __ cytochalasin blocks activity of microfilaments (stops cytokinesis) PART III. OTHER PHASES OF THE CELL CYCLE (INTERPHASE): General __ list G1, S, and G2 in correct order __ G1, S, and G2 are part of interphase __ chromosomes appear as a mass of chromatin material G1 __ synthesis of cell organelles or cell doubles in size __ restriction (decision) point or point of no return S __ synthesis or replication of DNA or DNA replication occurs during interphase G2 __ synthesis of microtubular assembly, or prepare for mitosis Points less frequently mentioned: __ description of nucleosomes __ times in each phase __ growth factors __ some cells do not go beyond G1 __ after cell passes "S", mitosis will usually continue __ colchicine prevents the formation of microtubules