EHS

Bloodborne Pathogens

This program includes protections and safeguards for University employees who are exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials as part of their normal job duties.

I.  Purpose/Scope

It is the goal of CSU Northridge to maintain, insofar as is reasonably possible, an environment that will not adversely affect the health, safety and well being of students, employees, visitors and the surrounding community.  To this end, the University has established a Bloodborne Pathogens program which includes protections and safeguards for University employees exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials during their normal job duties.

  • Purpose:  To establish a program that reduces the risk of occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials, which also complies with the requirements specified in California Code of Regulations Title 8 §5193 “Bloodborne Pathogens”. 
  • Scope: The Bloodborne Pathogens Program applies to all University employees who have potential for occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials during their normal job duties.

II. Definitions

  • Bloodborne Pathogen:  Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.  The pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Contaminated:  The presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or Other Potentially Infectious Materials on a surface or in or on an item.
  • Engineering  Controls:  Controls (e.g. sharps disposal containers, needleless systems and sharps with engineered sharps injury protection) that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen(s) hazard from the workplace.
  • Engineered Sharps Injury Protection:  A physical attribute built into a needle device used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or administering medications or other fluids, which effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident by a mechanism such as barrier creation, blunting, encapsulation, withdrawal or other effective mechanisms; or a physical attribute built into any other type of needle device, or into a non-needle sharp, which effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.
  • Exposure Incident:  A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that result from the performance of an employee’s duties.
  • Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM):
    • The following human body fluids:  semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and other body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood such as saliva or vomitus, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids such as emergency response;
    • Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead);
    • Any of the following, if known or reasonably likely to contain or be infected with HIV, HBV, or HCV:
    • Cell, tissue, or organ cultures from humans or experimental animals;
    • Blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals; or
    • Culture medium or other solutions.
  • Personal Protective Equipment:  Specialized clothing or equipment worn or used by an employee for protection against a hazard.  General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts or blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.
  • Sharp:  Any object used or encountered that can be reasonably anticipated to penetrate the skin or any other part of the body, and to result in an exposure incident, including, but not limited to, needle devices, scalpels, lancets, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, exposed ends of dental wires and dental knives, drills and burs.
  • Universal Precautions:  An approach to infection control.  According to the concept of Universal Precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and HCV, and other bloodborne pathogens.

III.  References

California Code of Regulations Title 8, Section 5193   

IV.  Responsibilities

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Safety:
    • Establish and update the written “Exposure Control Plan”.
    • Provide employee training as necessary.
    • Maintain copies of any “Exposure Incident Report”.
    • Provide consultation to departments that have employees who may be exposed to Bloodborne Pathogens.
  • Student Health Center
    • Conduct Hepatitis vaccinations as necessary.
    • Maintain a “Sharps Injury Log” for all Student Health Center exposure incidents involving a sharp (See Forms Used).
    • Provide annual training for Student Health Center employees.
  • Deans, Directors, and other heads of administrative units:
    • Provide the resources necessary to ensure that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is available for affected employees.
    • Ensure that all employees whose exposure determination is identified as Category I  (Section 6.0) are offered Hepatitis B vaccinations in accordance with Section 11.0.
    • Ensure that all exposure incidents are documented on the Exposure Incident Report Form (See Forms Used) and reported to the Environmental Health and Occupational Safety Office.
    • Following an incident, ensure that the “Post Exposure Evaluations and Follow-up” provisions are completed and documented (Section 12.0).
  • Employees covered by the Exposure Control Plan:
    • Understand the applicable components of the Exposure Control Plan.
    • Adhere to the practices and procedures of Universal Precautions.
    • Report any exposure, accident, injury or illness to their supervisor or EH&S.

V.  Exposure Determination

Exposure determinations are based on an employee’s reasonable potential for occupational exposure to blood or OPIM.  The following exposure determination and task assessments shall be made without regard to the use of personal protective equipment.

  • Category I:  Tasks that involve direct contact with blood, body fluids, or tissues.  All procedures, or other job-related tasks that involve an inherent potential for percutaneous, mucous membrane, or skin contact with blood or OPIM, are Category I tasks.  The use of appropriate protective measures will be required for every employee engaged in Category I tasks.
  • Category II: Tasks that involve no exposure to blood or OPIM, but may require performing unplanned Category I tasks.  The normal work routine involves no contact with blood or OPIM, but contact may be required as a condition of employment.  Appropriate protective measures shall be readily available for every employee engaged in Category II tasks.
  • Category III: University employees not classified in Category I or  II of this section.  These employees do not perform tasks that involve contact with blood or OPIM, and Category I tasks are not a job requirement.  The normal work routine does not involve contact with blood or OPIM.  Persons who perform these duties are not called upon as part of their job responsibilities, to perform any category I tasks or assist in emergency medical care or first aid.

 

Department

Job Classification

Category I

Category II

Tasks

Academic Departments

Researcher

 

X

Research involving human blood or OPIM

Children’s Center

Professional Staff

 

X

First aid as needed

CHIME Institute

Professional Staff

 

X

First aid as needed

EH&S

Chemical ERT personnel

 

X

Emergency response

Housing

Custodians

 

X

 

Kinesiology

Athletic Trainers

X

 

First aid for athlete injuries

Kinesiology

Lifeguards

X

 

First aid as needed

Physical Plant Mgmt

Custodians

 

X

 

Physical Plant Mgmt

Grounds

 

X

 

Physical Plant Mgmt

Plumbers

 

X

 

Public Safety

CSO Supervisors

 

X

First aid as needed

Public Safety

Sworn Police Personnel

X

 

First aid, CPR, evidence handling

Student Health Center

Clinical Aide II

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Clinical Lab Tech II

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Licensed Voc. Nurse

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Nurse Practitioner

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Physical Therapist

 

X

 

Student Health Center

Registered Nurse

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Radiologic Tech II

X

 

 

Student Health Center

Physician

X

 

Injections, sutures, cleaning wounds, bandaging, phlebotomy procedures, first aid, CPR, medical examinations

University Student Union

Custodians

 

X

 

University Student Union

Lifeguards

X

 

First aid as needed

University Student Union

Plumber

 

X

 


VI.  Universal Precautions

California State University, Northridge adheres to the practice of “Universal Precautions” to prevent contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials.  Under circumstances in which differentiation between body fluid types is difficult or impossible, all body fluids shall be considered potentially infectious materials, regardless of the perceived status of the source individual.

VII.  Engineering & Work Practice Controls

Whenever practical and feasible, engineering controls shall be used as a first line of defense against occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.  Work practice controls reduce employee exposure in the workplace by either removing or isolating the employee from exposure.

  • Needleless systems (Specific Engineering Requirements): 
    • Technology is not currently available for needleless systems.  Until such time that needless systems are utilized, needles with engineered sharps injury protection (E.S.I.P.) shall be used.
  • Prohibited practices:
    • Shearing or breaking of contaminated needles and other contaminated sharps.
    • Contaminated sharps shall not be bent, recapped, or removed from the devices.
    • Sharps that are contaminated with blood or OPIM shall not be stored or processed in a manner that requires employees to reach by hand into the containers where these sharps have been placed.
    • Disposable sharps shall not be reused.
    • Broken glassware which may be contaminated shall not be picked up directly with the hands.  It shall be cleaned up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dust pan, tongs, or forceps.
    • The contents of sharps containers shall not be accessed unless properly reprocessed or decontaminated.
    • Sharps containers shall not be opened, emptied, or cleaned manually or in any other manner which would expose employees to the risk of sharps injury.
    • Mouth pipetting/suctioning of blood or OPIM is prohibited.
    • Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, and handling contact lenses are prohibited in work areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of occupational exposure.
    • Food and drink shall not be kept in refrigerators, freezers, shelves, cabinets or on countertops or bench tops where blood or OPIM are present.
  • Handling Contaminated Sharps: 
    • Procedures involving the use of sharps in connection with patient care shall be performed using effective patient-handling techniques and other methods designed to minimize the risk of a sharps injury.
    • Contaminated sharps shall be discarded immediately or as soon as possible after use.
    • All sharps containers for contaminated sharps shall be easily accessible to personnel and located close to the immediate area where sharps are used. 
  • Sharps Containers:
    • All sharps containers for contaminated sharps shall be rigid, puncture resistant, leak proof on the sides and bottom, and must be properly labeled.
    • All sharps containers shall be maintained upright throughout use, and replaced when necessary.
    • Sharps containers shall not be filled beyond the line indicated on the container itself, or no more than ¾ full.
    • Sharps containers shall not be reused.
    • When moving containers of contaminated sharps from the area of use, the containers shall be closed prior to removal or replacement to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents.
    • If leakage of the primary container is possible, a secondary container must be used to prevent leakage during transport and handling.  The secondary container must be properly labeled to identify the contents.
  • Regulated Waste:  
  • Handling Specimens of Blood or OPIM:
    • Specimens of blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be placed in a container which prevents leakage during the collection, handling, processing, storage, transport, or shipping.
    • If outside contamination of the primary container occurs, the primary container shall be placed within a second container which prevents leakage.
  • Cleaning and Decontamination of Worksite:
    • Disinfectants and/or germicides shall be applied to working area surfaces to ensure the area is maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
    • Each Department is responsible for maintaining an appropriate cleaning and decontamination schedule.
    • Working surfaces and equipment shall be cleaned after completion of working procedures, when these items are overtly contaminated, immediately after a spill of blood or OPIM, routinely after the end of the work shift, or prior to maintenance or servicing.
    • Protective clothing shall be worn during clean-up procedures (i.e. gloves, goggles).
    • Reusable items that may be potentially infectious will be decontaminated before washing or reprocessing.
    • All containers, bins, pails, cans or similar receptacles intended for use in the disposal of infectious waste shall have a lid or top on the container.  These containers should be collected on a daily basis or when the container becomes full. 
  • Hygiene:
    • Employees shall wash their hands immediately, or as soon as possible, after the removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment.
    • Following any contact of skin with blood or any other infectious materials, employees shall wash the affected area with soap and water as soon as possible.  Mucous membranes must be flushed with water if exposed.
  • Laundry:
    • Contaminated laundry shall be handled as little as possible.
    • Universal Precautions shall be utilized in the handling of all potentially contaminated laundry.
    • Employees within the Student Health Center are to place all lab coats and contaminated laundry in designated receptacles. 

VIII.  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  • Wearing personal protective equipment can greatly reduce potential exposure to all bloodborne pathogens.
  • All personal protective equipment required for use must be readily accessible to employees and is chosen based on the anticipated exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. 
  • Protective equipment is considered appropriate only if it does not permit blood or OPIM to pass through or reach the employees’ clothing, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under the normal conditions of use and for the duration of use.
  • Personal protective clothing and equipment must be removed before leaving the work area or when the PPE becomes contaminated.
  • If a garment is penetrated, workers must remove it immediately or as soon as feasible.
  • When removed, PPE shall be placed in an appropriately designated area or container for storage, washing, decontamination, or disposal.
    • Gloves:
      • If an employee is expected to have direct hand contact with blood or OPIM or contaminated surfaces, gloves must be worn.
      • Single use gloves cannot be washed or decontaminated for reuse.
      • Disposable gloves shall be properly disposed of if visibly soiled, torn, or damaged.
      • Gloves are not to be removed or worn outside the work area.
    • Masks, Eye Protection, Face Shields:
      • This PPE will be worn singularly or in combination as guidelines specify.  They will be worn when the potential exists for spattering, spraying, splashing droplets or aerosols of blood or any other potentially infectious materials may be present.  Use of this PPE applies when the employees eyes, nose, or mouth are potentially exposed to contamination.

IX.   HIV, HBV, HCV Research

CSU Northridge is not currently involved in HIV, HBV or HCV research.  Professors wishing to conduct such research in the future should contact the Environmental Health and Occupational Safety Office and request a review of their research proposal.

 X.   Hepatitis B Vaccination

CSU Northridge is not currently involved in HIV, HBV or HCV research.  Professors wishing to conduct such research in the future should contact the Environmental Health and Occupational Safety Office and request a review of their research proposal.

 XI.   BBP Post Exposure Evaluation & Follow-Up

  • Procedures:
    • All exposure incidents shall be reported, investigated, and documented.   Following a report of an exposure incident, the following procedures must be adhered to:
    • The exposure incident must be reported immediately to your supervisor, and the EH&S Office (extension 2401).
    • The” Exposure Incident Report Form” (See Forms Used) must be filled out.
    • A report of employee injury must be filed with Human Resources (extension 2119).
    • A Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-up form (See Forms Used) must be completed.
    • A confidential medical evaluation and follow-up will be made available to the employee.
    • A full HBV vaccination series will be made available within 24 hours to affected employees that have not received the pre-exposure vaccination series.
    • Identification of the source individual must be made, if possible.  The source individual’s blood must be tested if consent can be obtained.  Source testing is not needed if it is already known that the individual is infected with HBV or HIV.  Results of the test must be made available to the exposed employee.
    • The exposed employee’s blood shall be collected as soon as feasible and tested after consent is obtained.  If the employee consents to blood collections, but does not give consent for testing, the sample must be preserved for 90 days.  The employee may elect, during that time, for testing to be done.  Additional testing and collection will be made available as recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service.
  • The following information shall be provided to the attending physician:
    • A copy of the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard CCR Title 8, 5193.
    • Description of the affected employee’s job duties and history regarding the occupational exposure.
    • Documentation of the route of exposure and circumstances under which exposure occurred (Exposure Incident Report Form. (See Forms Used).
    • Results of the source individual’s blood testing, if available.
    • All medical records relevant to the appropriate treatment of the employee including vaccination status.
  • The attending physician shall provide the University with the following information in writing within 15 days from completion of the evaluation:
    • An opinion whether or not a vaccination for Hepatitis B is indicated and the series has been initiated.
    • That the employee has been informed of the results of the evaluation.
    • That the employee has been told about any medical conditions resulting from exposure to blood or OPIM which require further evaluation or treatment.

XII.  Communication of Hazards to Employees

Communicating hazards to employees who may potentially come into contact with bloodborne pathogens is a vital component of this program in order to eliminate or minimize exposure.

  • Signs and Labels:
    • The proper biohazard labels shall be affixed to all collection or storage containers of potentially infectious materials.  This includes regulated waste, refrigerators, freezers, equipment and other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or other potentially infectious materials.
    • The labels shall include the universal biohazard symbol and the legend BIOHAZARD. In the case of regulated waste BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE may be substituted.
    • The labels shall be fluorescent orange or orange-red.
  • Information and Training:
    • Employee training will be conducted prior to assignment of tasks where the potential for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens are present.    Additional, these employees will be retrained at least annually on the following elements:
    • An accessible copy of Title 8, California Code of Regulations, Section 5193, “Bloodborne Pathogens” and an explanation of its contents.
    • A general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodborne diseases.
    • Information regarding the modes and methods of transmission of bloodborne disease.
    • An explanation and an accessible copy of the campus Exposure Control Plan.
    • Appropriate methods for recognizing tasks and other activities that may involve exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials.
    • Use and limitations of methods that will prevent or reduce exposure including appropriate engineering controls, administrative or work practice controls, and personal protective equipment.
    • Information on the types, proper use, location, removal, handling, decontamination and disposal of personal protective equipment.
    • The basis for selection of personal protective equipment.
    • Information on the hepatitis B vaccine, including information on its efficiency, safety, method of administration, the benefits of being vaccinated, and that the vaccine and vaccination will be offered free of charge.
    • Appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an emergency involving blood or other potentially infectious materials.
    • Procedures to follow if an exposure incident occurs, including the method of reporting the incident and the medical follow-up that will be made available and the procedure for recording the incident on the Sharps Injury Log.
    • Information on the post-exposure evaluation and follow-up that is provided following an exposure.
    • An explanation of the signs, labels, and color coding requirements.
    • An opportunity for interactive questions and answers.
    • All training shall be documented and maintained for a period of at least 3 years.

XIII.  Recordkeeping

  • All records should be maintained on the forms noted in this document.
  • Training records and exposure incident/accident reports will be maintained in the Office of Environmental Health and Occupational Safety.
  • Medical records and exposure incident reports shall be maintained in Human Resources.
  • All medical records shall be confidential and will not be disclosed to any person except where regulation requires.  Each record will be maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years in accordance with Section 3204.  The records shall include the following:
    • The name and social security number of employee.
    • A copy of the employee's HBV vaccination status, including the dates of vaccination and ability to receive vaccination.
    • A copy of all results of examination, medical testing, and follow-up procedures.
    • A copy of the information provided to the healthcare professional.
    • A confidential copy of the healthcare professional’s written opinion.

XV.   Forms Used

XVI.  Revision Record

REVISION

CHANGES

DATE

3.0

Format changes and updates

October 1, 2008

4.0

Format change and update

April 23, 2009

 

4.1

Review and migrate to web one

January 2014