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Stone, D. J., & Dolbin-MacNab, M. L. (2017). Racial socialization practices of White mothers raising Black-White Biracial children. Contemporary Family Therapy, 39(2), 97-111.


The purpose of this retrospective qualitative study was to examine the impact of monoracial Black or White parents’ racial socialization practices on the process of biracial identity development for their Black-White biracial children. Data were obtained through in-person, semi-structured interviews with 10 White monoracial mothers and 11 of their adult (ages 18 to 40) biracial children. The phenomenological analysis of participants’ experiences raising biracial children and growing up biracial revealed two overarching themes of racial socialization practices interacting with and influencing biracial identity development: creating a biracial family identity and navigating biracial with the outside world. Findings from this study expand the racial socialization research by connecting parental racial socialization with their child’s biracial identity and adding the unique perspective that racial socialization is an interactive family process in interracial families. Additionally, data from this study has important clinical and future research implications.

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