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Research

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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, Pamella. (2013). Longitudinal pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement to math course accomplishments and educational attainment.  Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6, 68-92.

Abstract

Across 20-years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9 - 17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments and educational attainment, a latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Levels of motivation and achievement at 9 had positive, direct, and mutually indirect paths to course accomplishments.  Dual declines in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments, directly for achievement, and indirectly for motivation via achievement.  Greater decline corresponded to fewer course accomplishments which in turn predicted, and served as a mediator to educational attainment.  Implications are discussed.

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Gottfried, A. W., Schlackman, J., Gottfried, A. E., & Martinez, A. S. (2015).  Parental provision of early literacy environment as related to reading and educational   outcomes across the academic life-span.  Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 24-38.

Abstract

In a longitudinal study spanning 28-years, this research examined the long-term effect of children’s home literacy environment during infancy and early childhood on their subsequent reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement from childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Literacy environment was assessed from infancy through preschool with the amount of time mothers read to their children and the number of books and reading materials in the home. Analyzing the data using structual equation modeling, literacy environment was examined as related to children’s reading intrinsic motivation (measured with the Reading scale of the CAIMI) and reading achievement across childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Results demonstrated that it was the amount of time mothers spent reading to their children, not the number of books and reading materials in the home, that was significantly related to reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and educational attainment.  Specifically, when mothers spent more time reading to their children across infancy through early childhood, their children’s reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were also significantly higher across childhood through adolescence.  In turn, higher reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were significantly related to educational attainment during adulthood.  These findings occurred above and beyond mothers’ educational level. Reading to children during infancy and early childhood proved to have significant and positive long-term benefits for children’s reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and adulthood educational attainment that extended across the academic life-span from childhood through adulthood.  The specific experience of being read to during the early years has long-term educational benefits that traverse the academic life-span through its relationships with reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. Implications for practice are that parental reading to children is a significant factor that needs to be encouraged as early as infancy. It is of paramount importance to disseminate this knowledge to parents (mothers and fathers as well as other caregivers) and develop methods and practices that encourage them to read on their own accord to their young children as those parents who do so voluntarily are likely to continuously furnish and support literacy engagement activities.  This research extends Dr. Gottfried's research program on the role of parental involvement and home environment, in the development of children's academic intrinsic motivation.
















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Gottfried, A. E., Nylund-Gibson, K., Gottfried, A. W., Morovati, D., & Gonzalez, A. M. (2016). Trajectories from academic intrinsic motivation to need for      cognition and educational attainment.  The Journal of Educational Research. DOI: 10.1080/00220671.2016.1171199

Abstract

This long-term longitudinal study addressed the theoretical underpinning of academic intrinsic motivation (AIM) from childhood through adolescence, to need for cognition (NFC) and educational attainment (EA) during adulthood. AIM was measured from 9 to 17 years old, NFC and EA at 29 years old, and IQ at 8 years old. Latent change and growth mixture modeling were utilized. These models complemented each other, revealing that initial motivational status significantly related to both outcomes. Growth mixture modeling elaborated the findings by identifying distinctive subgroups in initial status and developmental change. In contrast to children with initially higher AIM, those starting lower declined resulting in lower NFC and EA. IQ was controlled in these analyses. Findings enhance understanding of trajectories across two decades of development, indicating that students’ early motivation relates to adulthood NFC and EA. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

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Gottfried, A. E. (in press) Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic). In M. Bornstein, Ed.The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications                                                                                                            

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, developmental trends of such motivation across childhood through adulthood, and relationships to academic success.  The role of environment is presented with implications for practice.

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