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Research

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Gottfried, A. E. (2011, April). Searching for Motivation from Childhood through Adulthood: Findings and Implications of a Longitudinal Investigation across Two Decades. Invited presentation at the 2011 Western Psychological Association Convention, Los Angeles.

Abstract

This presentation provided an overview of my research program on academic intrinsic motivation with regard to: developmental trends across the school years, the role of environment and parental motivational practices, and relationships to academic achievement.

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Gottfried, Adele. E.  (1986). Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory.  (CAIMI).    Lutz, FL:  Psychological Assessment Resources.

Abstract

,The CAIMI assesses academic intrinsic motivation in school subject areas as well as for school in general, from childhood through adolescence. It is avaiilable from Psychological Assessment Resources, www.parinc.com.
A downward extension for grades 1 to 3,the Young Children's Academic Inventory (YCAIMI) and upward extension for high school students, the CAIMI-HS version have been developed, and for more information about these please contact Dr. Adele Gottfried.

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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. (2009). A latent curve model of parental motivational practices and developmental decline in math and science academic intrinsic motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 729-739.                                                                                               

Abstract

A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children’s pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic practices comprise parents’ provision of external rewards and consequences contingent on children’s task performance. A conditional latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study (A. W. Gottfried, A. E. Gottfried, & D. W. Guerin, 2006), with academic intrinsic motivation in math and science assessed from ages 9 to 17 and parental motivational practices measured when children were age 9. The results indicated that task-intrinsic practices were beneficial with regard to children’s initial levels of motivation at age 9 as well as with regard to motivational decline through age 17. Conversely, parents’ use of task-extrinsic practices was adverse with regard to children’s motivation both at age 9 and across the 8-year interval. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to academic intrinsic motivation are discussed.



















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Gottfried, Adele. E., et al. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 510-519. In special issue of The Leadership Quarterly on “Longitudinal Investigations of Leader Development.”

Abstract

The present study elucidates developmental roots of leadership by investigating how motivation from childhood through adolescence is linked to motivation to lead in adulthood. Results showed considerable and significant continuity between academic intrinsic motivation and motivation to lead, indicating that adults with greater enjoyment of leadership per se, and who are motivated to lead without regard to external consequences, were significantly more intrinsically motivated from childhood through adolescence. Implications for developing motivation in leaders are advanced.

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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, Pamella. (2013). Longitudinal pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement to math course accomplishments and educational attainment.  Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6, 68-92.

Abstract

Across 20-years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9 - 17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments and educational attainment, a latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Levels of motivation and achievement at 9 had positive, direct, and mutually indirect paths to course accomplishments.  Dual declines in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments, directly for achievement, and indirectly for motivation via achievement.  Greater decline corresponded to fewer course accomplishments which in turn predicted, and served as a mediator to educational attainment.  Implications are discussed.

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Gottfried, A. W., Schlackman, J., Gottfried, A. E., & Martinez, A. S. (2015).  Parental provision of early literacy environment as related to reading and educational   outcomes across the academic life-span.  Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 24-38.

Abstract

In a longitudinal study spanning 28-years, this research examined the long-term effect of children’s home literacy environment during infancy and early childhood on their subsequent reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement from childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Literacy environment was assessed from infancy through preschool with the amount of time mothers read to their children and the number of books and reading materials in the home. Analyzing the data using structual equation modeling, literacy environment was examined as related to children’s reading intrinsic motivation (measured with the Reading scale of the CAIMI) and reading achievement across childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Results demonstrated that it was the amount of time mothers spent reading to their children, not the number of books and reading materials in the home, that was significantly related to reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and educational attainment.  Specifically, when mothers spent more time reading to their children across infancy through early childhood, their children’s reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were also significantly higher across childhood through adolescence.  In turn, higher reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were significantly related to educational attainment during adulthood.  These findings occurred above and beyond mothers’ educational level. Reading to children during infancy and early childhood proved to have significant and positive long-term benefits for children’s reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and adulthood educational attainment that extended across the academic life-span from childhood through adulthood.  The specific experience of being read to during the early years has long-term educational benefits that traverse the academic life-span through its relationships with reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. Implications for practice are that parental reading to children is a significant factor that needs to be encouraged as early as infancy. It is of paramount importance to disseminate this knowledge to parents (mothers and fathers as well as other caregivers) and develop methods and practices that encourage them to read on their own accord to their young children as those parents who do so voluntarily are likely to continuously furnish and support literacy engagement activities.  This research extends Dr. Gottfried's research program on the role of parental involvement and home environment, in the development of children's academic intrinsic motivation.
















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Gottfried, A. E., Nylund-Gibson, K., Gottfried, A. W., Morovati, D., & Gonzalez, A. M. (2016). Trajectories from academic intrinsic motivation to need for      cognition and educational attainment.  The Journal of Educational Research. DOI: 10.1080/00220671.2016.1171199

Abstract

This long-term longitudinal study addressed the theoretical underpinning of academic intrinsic motivation (AIM) from childhood through adolescence, to need for cognition (NFC) and educational attainment (EA) during adulthood. AIM was measured from 9 to 17 years old, NFC and EA at 29 years old, and IQ at 8 years old. Latent change and growth mixture modeling were utilized. These models complemented each other, revealing that initial motivational status significantly related to both outcomes. Growth mixture modeling elaborated the findings by identifying distinctive subgroups in initial status and developmental change. In contrast to children with initially higher AIM, those starting lower declined resulting in lower NFC and EA. IQ was controlled in these analyses. Findings enhance understanding of trajectories across two decades of development, indicating that students’ early motivation relates to adulthood NFC and EA. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

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Gottfried, A. E., & Gottfried, A. W. (2009). Development of gifted motivation:    Longitudinal research and applications.  In L. Shavinina (Ed.), International   Handbook of Giftedness and Talent. Part 1, (pp. 617-631). Springer Science+Business Media.
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Gottfried, A et al. (2011). Paths from gifted motivation to leadership. In S. E. Murphy & R. J. Reichard (Eds.). Early Development and Leadership: Building the Next Generation of Leaders (pp. 71-91). New York: Psychology Press/Routledge.

Abstract

The research reported in this chapter indicates the strong positive role of students’ gifted academic intrinsic motivation with regard to undertaking leadership positions in high school extracurricular activities. Pathways from gifted motivation to leadership are discussed, as well as implications for developing student academic intrinsic motivation are advanced.

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Gottfried, A. E. (2016). Intrinsic Motivation and Goals.  Invited chapter in H.  Friedman (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd Edition. Vol 2, Waltham, MA: Academic Press, pp. 417-422.

Abstract

Academic intrinsic motivation concerns the enjoyment of learning for its own sake without receiving external rewards, and intrinsic motivation is recognized as being important for individuals’ well-being and mental health. From childhood through adulthood, a substantial body of research shows that academic intrinsic motivation is a significant factor with regard to academic and educational well-being.  Individuals with higher levels of academic intrinsic motivation evidence pervasively greater and consistently higher academic and educational competence, and leadership.  On the other hand, individuals with lower academic intrinsic motivation, fare less well, and may become at-risk for adverse outcomes.  Development of academic intrinsic motivation across childhood and adolescence is presented, and trends that contribute to both positive and negative long-term outcomes are discussed.  Finally, home and school environments play a role in the stimulation of academic intrinsic motivation, and suggestions for intervention are advanced.

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Gottfried, A. E. (in press) Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic). In M. Bornstein, Ed.The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications                                                                                                            

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, developmental trends of such motivation across childhood through adulthood, and relationships to academic success.  The role of environment is presented with implications for practice.

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2011 Social Responsibility Award from the Western Psychological Association

Abstract

Dr. Gottfried's research has had an extensive impact on social policies relating to the well-being of children and their families in two areas. With regard to the role of maternal and dual-earner employment and children's development, "The findings from her studies served as a basis for a landmark Supreme Court ruling which prohibits the judiciary from using a parents' employment in a child custody determination." With regard to her research on academic intrinsic motivation and children's academic success, the scale she developed, the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, "has been translated into numerous languages so as to be used internationally. It is used by school districts and state education programs to assess children who have difficulties in learning as well as to assess mtivation among gifted students." "Very few developmental psychologists have had such an enormous impact on practical applications of research in the schools."

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Hudley, C. and Gottfried, A. E. (Eds.), (2008). Academic motivation and the culture of school in childhood and adolescence. NY: Oxford Press.

Abstract

The chapters in this book examne motivation with students of various ethnicities, languages, ages, achievement levels, and social classes, and attend to academic motivation in these different contexts. Goal of the book is to create a more comprehensive and integrated perspective on the multiple dimensions of school culture in the United States.

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