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Research

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Gottfried, A. W., Schlackman, J., Gottfried, A. E., & Martinez, A. S. (2015).  Parental provision of early literacy environment as related to reading and educational   outcomes across the academic life-span.  Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 24-38.

Abstract

In a longitudinal study spanning 28-years, this research examined the long-term effect of children’s home literacy environment during infancy and early childhood on their subsequent reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement from childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Literacy environment was assessed from infancy through preschool with the amount of time mothers read to their children and the number of books and reading materials in the home. Analyzing the data using structual equation modeling, literacy environment was examined as related to children’s reading intrinsic motivation (measured with the Reading scale of the CAIMI) and reading achievement across childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Results demonstrated that it was the amount of time mothers spent reading to their children, not the number of books and reading materials in the home, that was significantly related to reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and educational attainment.  Specifically, when mothers spent more time reading to their children across infancy through early childhood, their children’s reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were also significantly higher across childhood through adolescence.  In turn, higher reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were significantly related to educational attainment during adulthood.  These findings occurred above and beyond mothers’ educational level. Reading to children during infancy and early childhood proved to have significant and positive long-term benefits for children’s reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and adulthood educational attainment that extended across the academic life-span from childhood through adulthood.  The specific experience of being read to during the early years has long-term educational benefits that traverse the academic life-span through its relationships with reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. Implications for practice are that parental reading to children is a significant factor that needs to be encouraged as early as infancy. It is of paramount importance to disseminate this knowledge to parents (mothers and fathers as well as other caregivers) and develop methods and practices that encourage them to read on their own accord to their young children as those parents who do so voluntarily are likely to continuously furnish and support literacy engagement activities.  This research extends Dr. Gottfried's research program on the role of parental involvement and home environment, in the development of children's academic intrinsic motivation.
















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Gottfried, A. E., Preston, K. S. J., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., Delany, D. E., & Ibrahim, S. M. (2016) Pathways from parental stimulation of children’s curiosity to high school science course accomplishments and science career interest and skill, International Journal of Science Education, 38:12, 1972-1995, DOI: 10.1080/09500693.2016.1220690

Abstract

Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children’s involvement in science.This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children’s curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high school science course accomplishments, career interest, and skill. A conceptual model investigated parental stimulation of children’s curiosity as related to SA via science intrinsic motivation and science achievement. Parental stimulation of curiosity at age 8 years comprised exposing children to new experiences, promoting curiosity, encouraging asking questions, and taking children to a museum. Intrinsic motivation was measured at ages 9, 10, and 13 years, and achievement at ages 9, 10, and 11 years. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. Controlling for socio-economic status, parental stimulation of curiosity bore positive and significant relations to science intrinsic motivation and achievement, which in turn related to SA. Gender neither related to stimulation of curiosity nor contributed to the model. Findings highlight the importance of parental stimulation of children’s curiosity in facilitating trajectories into science, and relevance to science education is discussed.

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Gottfried, A. E., & Gottfried, A. W. (2009). Development of gifted motivation:    Longitudinal research and applications.  In L. Shavinina (Ed.), International   Handbook of Giftedness and Talent. Part 1, (pp. 617-631). Springer Science+Business Media.
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Gottfried, A. E. (2016). Intrinsic Motivation and Goals.  Invited chapter in H.  Friedman (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd Edition. Vol 2, Waltham, MA: Academic Press, pp. 417-422.

Abstract

Academic intrinsic motivation concerns the enjoyment of learning for its own sake without receiving external rewards, and intrinsic motivation is recognized as being important for individuals’ well-being and mental health. From childhood through adulthood, a substantial body of research shows that academic intrinsic motivation is a significant factor with regard to academic and educational well-being.  Individuals with higher levels of academic intrinsic motivation evidence pervasively greater and consistently higher academic and educational competence, and leadership.  On the other hand, individuals with lower academic intrinsic motivation, fare less well, and may become at-risk for adverse outcomes.  Development of academic intrinsic motivation across childhood and adolescence is presented, and trends that contribute to both positive and negative long-term outcomes are discussed.  Finally, home and school environments play a role in the stimulation of academic intrinsic motivation, and suggestions for intervention are advanced.

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Hudley, C. and Gottfried, A. E. (Eds.), (2008). Academic motivation and the culture of school in childhood and adolescence. NY: Oxford Press.

Abstract

The chapters in this book examne motivation with students of various ethnicities, languages, ages, achievement levels, and social classes, and attend to academic motivation in these different contexts. Goal of the book is to create a more comprehensive and integrated perspective on the multiple dimensions of school culture in the United States.

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