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Research

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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. (2009). A latent curve model of parental motivational practices and developmental decline in math and science academic intrinsic motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 729-739.                                                                                               

Abstract

A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children’s pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic practices comprise parents’ provision of external rewards and consequences contingent on children’s task performance. A conditional latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study (A. W. Gottfried, A. E. Gottfried, & D. W. Guerin, 2006), with academic intrinsic motivation in math and science assessed from ages 9 to 17 and parental motivational practices measured when children were age 9. The results indicated that task-intrinsic practices were beneficial with regard to children’s initial levels of motivation at age 9 as well as with regard to motivational decline through age 17. Conversely, parents’ use of task-extrinsic practices was adverse with regard to children’s motivation both at age 9 and across the 8-year interval. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to academic intrinsic motivation are discussed.



















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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, Pamella. (2013). Longitudinal pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement to math course accomplishments and educational attainment.  Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6, 68-92.

Abstract

Across 20-years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9 - 17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments and educational attainment, a latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Levels of motivation and achievement at 9 had positive, direct, and mutually indirect paths to course accomplishments.  Dual declines in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments, directly for achievement, and indirectly for motivation via achievement.  Greater decline corresponded to fewer course accomplishments which in turn predicted, and served as a mediator to educational attainment.  Implications are discussed.

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