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Tovar, E. & Simon, M. A. (2010). Factorial Structure and Invariance Analysis of the Sense of Belonging Scales. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, 199-217.


This research article was awarded The 2010 Patricia B. Elmore Award for Outstanding Research in Measurement and Evaluation. Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education/Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. The award was given as the article was "deemed to have made the greatest contribution to the professional literature."

Using a diverse sample of university students, this article describes outcomes of a confirmatory factor analysis and a group invariance analysis conducted to validate the factorial structure of the Sense of Belonging Scales. Accordingly, a modified factor structure departing significantly from that of the original authors is proposed.

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