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Research

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Trumbull, E. & Rothstein-Fisch, C. (2011). The intersection of culture and achievement motivation. The School Community Journal (21)2, 25-53.

Abstract

Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The practices of schools tend to reflect the individualism of the dominant U.S. culture. Many students come from families that are more collectivistic. Elementary bilingual teachers used a cultural framework of individualism/collectivism to guide understanding and innovations related to achievement motivation. Examples illustrate cultural differences and how they can be bridged.

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Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, Pamella. (2013). Longitudinal pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement to math course accomplishments and educational attainment.  Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6, 68-92.

Abstract

Across 20-years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9 - 17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments and educational attainment, a latent curve model was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Levels of motivation and achievement at 9 had positive, direct, and mutually indirect paths to course accomplishments.  Dual declines in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments, directly for achievement, and indirectly for motivation via achievement.  Greater decline corresponded to fewer course accomplishments which in turn predicted, and served as a mediator to educational attainment.  Implications are discussed.

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Sy, S. R., Gottfried, A. W., Gottfried, A. E. (2013). A transactional model of parental involvement and children's achievement from early childhood through adolescence.  Parenting: Science and Practice. 13, 133-152.

Abstract

Objective. The transactional relations between two types of parental home involvement, academic instruction and academic socialization, and children's reading achievement from early childhood through adolescence were examined in a longitudinal study. Academic instruction involves one-on-one interactions between parent and child that target the development of specific academic skills, and academic socialization involves parents' promotion of academic values, beliefs, and expectations. Design. The sample was based on an ongoing long-term longitudinal study, and included 122 children (approximately equal in gender) and their families. This study included data collected from ages 3 to 17 years, employing a variety of direct and indirect assessments Results. Findings showed that the two types of parental home involvement are distinct, related, and highly stable from early childhood through adolescence and both types of parental home involvement show transactional relationships with children's reading achievement over time. Conclusion.  This study contributes to the literature by elucidating the stability of parental academic instruction and socialization as well as their transactional relationships with children’s achievement within a single integrated model from early childhood through adolescence.

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Minton, S. J. (2016). Evidence-informed recommendations to promote Black student engagement. Journal of School Counseling, 14(12). Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v14n12.pdf

Abstract

In 2012, Black students dropped out of school at a rate of 7.5% (NCES, 2013a). While this is the second lowest dropout rate for this population in 55 years, Black students are still dropping out at nearly twice the rate (4.3%) of their White counterparts. This paper includes a review of literature related to this phenomenon and offers evidence-informed recommendations taken from the literature for professional school counselors to utilize to improve academic engagement of Black students. These recommendations include: facilitating difficult dialogues on race, using a Student Success Skills program, and entering into school-family-community partnerships. 

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Gottfried, A. E. (in press) Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic). In M. Bornstein, Ed.The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications                                                                                                            

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, developmental trends of such motivation across childhood through adulthood, and relationships to academic success.  The role of environment is presented with implications for practice.

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