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Research

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Sy, S. R., Gottfried, A. W., Gottfried, A. E. (2013). A transactional model of parental involvement and children's achievement from early childhood through adolescence.  Parenting: Science and Practice. 13, 133-152.

Abstract

Objective. The transactional relations between two types of parental home involvement, academic instruction and academic socialization, and children's reading achievement from early childhood through adolescence were examined in a longitudinal study. Academic instruction involves one-on-one interactions between parent and child that target the development of specific academic skills, and academic socialization involves parents' promotion of academic values, beliefs, and expectations. Design. The sample was based on an ongoing long-term longitudinal study, and included 122 children (approximately equal in gender) and their families. This study included data collected from ages 3 to 17 years, employing a variety of direct and indirect assessments Results. Findings showed that the two types of parental home involvement are distinct, related, and highly stable from early childhood through adolescence and both types of parental home involvement show transactional relationships with children's reading achievement over time. Conclusion.  This study contributes to the literature by elucidating the stability of parental academic instruction and socialization as well as their transactional relationships with children’s achievement within a single integrated model from early childhood through adolescence.

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Gottfried, A. W., Schlackman, J., Gottfried, A. E., & Martinez, A. S. (2015).  Parental provision of early literacy environment as related to reading and educational   outcomes across the academic life-span.  Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 24-38.

Abstract

In a longitudinal study spanning 28-years, this research examined the long-term effect of children’s home literacy environment during infancy and early childhood on their subsequent reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement from childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Literacy environment was assessed from infancy through preschool with the amount of time mothers read to their children and the number of books and reading materials in the home. Analyzing the data using structual equation modeling, literacy environment was examined as related to children’s reading intrinsic motivation (measured with the Reading scale of the CAIMI) and reading achievement across childhood through adolescence, and educational attainment during adulthood. Results demonstrated that it was the amount of time mothers spent reading to their children, not the number of books and reading materials in the home, that was significantly related to reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and educational attainment.  Specifically, when mothers spent more time reading to their children across infancy through early childhood, their children’s reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were also significantly higher across childhood through adolescence.  In turn, higher reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement were significantly related to educational attainment during adulthood.  These findings occurred above and beyond mothers’ educational level. Reading to children during infancy and early childhood proved to have significant and positive long-term benefits for children’s reading intrinsic motivation, reading achievement, and adulthood educational attainment that extended across the academic life-span from childhood through adulthood.  The specific experience of being read to during the early years has long-term educational benefits that traverse the academic life-span through its relationships with reading intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. Implications for practice are that parental reading to children is a significant factor that needs to be encouraged as early as infancy. It is of paramount importance to disseminate this knowledge to parents (mothers and fathers as well as other caregivers) and develop methods and practices that encourage them to read on their own accord to their young children as those parents who do so voluntarily are likely to continuously furnish and support literacy engagement activities.  This research extends Dr. Gottfried's research program on the role of parental involvement and home environment, in the development of children's academic intrinsic motivation.
















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Preston, K. S. J., Parral, S. N., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., Gottfried, A. E., Ibrahim, S. M., & Delany, D. (2015).  Applying the nominal response model within a   longitudinal framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale.    Educational and Psychological Measurement, 75. 901-930.

Abstract

A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model (NRM) under the Item Response Theory (IRT) framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships (PFR) scale. This scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle-childhood through adolescence. Items tapping this construct were completed annually by mothers when children were ages 9 – 17 years.  The scale measures a construct customized for each age with uniquely informative items consisting exclusively of discriminating response categories as evaluated using the NRM.  By employing longitudinal data, the study is innovative in implementing the method of test equating to a psychological construct across nine assessments spanning eight years.  Future research pertaining to validity and applications are discussed.

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