2001 Conference Proceedings

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Aaron Smith
GW Micro
725 Airport North Office Park
Fort Wayne, IN 46825

With the advancement and evolution of web page design, many sites that take advantage of new technology are quick to be labeled as inaccessible without understanding how the web page is designed to work. At the same time, web masters are often quick to implement the latest in web technology without investigating any limitations that may arise. By examining and critiquing the elements of web page design, both web masters and users can work together to create web pages that offer complete and barrier-free access to any and all information available.

Accessibility has become a very large and broad term just within the past few years, and encompasses a number of different groups of individuals: mobility impairment, visual impairment, hearing impairment, learning impairment, and others. Each of these groups has special needs that are required for access. For example, some with mobility impairments require lifts, or elevators, to offices above the first floor of a business. Some with visual impairments require screen readers for access to computers. Some with hearing impairments require visual cues when a nearby phone rings. Other groups require other forms of adaptation in order for them to achieve access.

When contemplating the design of a web page, it is difficult to think of each type of disability, and account for them during the design process. Fortunately, for most users, the adaptation required is minimal, and access can be gained at almost any location. For others, however, access can be dependant on a number of different factors. Those with visual impairments, for example, rely on the web page itself to be accessible, as well as their screen reader to take into account the elements of web page design. Certain web pages, however, implement elements that have the potential to be inaccessible. Is this inaccessibility the fault of the web master or the screen reader manufacturer?

In order to understand the reasons behind a page considered inaccessible, web page elements and their characteristics need to be examined by all parties involved: the web master, the screen reader manufacturer, and the end user.

A basic web page consists of ASCII text code referred to as HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). This language contains tags that indicate to a web browser how a page is to be displayed. There are tags for bold text, italic text, underlined text, paragraph breaks, line breaks, tables, forms, frames, and a host of other ways of manipulating the text on a page. Web pages may also contain other languages to assist in how the page acts or reacts to user input. Some of those languages include JavaScript, VBScript, JAVA, XML, CSS, and DHTML. Web masters decide which language will provide them with the results they are looking for while designing a web page. Screen reader manufactures also must take into account each of these languages, and how their reader will interact with a page designed in, or utilizing, a certain language. Understanding HTML, however, is critical to understanding other languages, and will contain most of the information that the web browser and screen reader will communicate to each other.

The following is a list of HTML elements that some accessibility tools deem inappropriate for an accessible web page. Each of these elements will be looked at in detail, in relation to design and screen readers, to examine the possibility of conflict, and to see if solutions are available.

Because GW Micro is conducting this presentation, the screen reader of choice will be Window-Eyes. All information regarding web page access will be drawn upon the features of Window-Eyes.


Frames are often used to denote a static location for topical links on a given web page. The most popular frame design consists of two frames: one frame, containing the aforementioned links, and another frame where the main content of the site will be displayed when a link is clicked.

Pros: Frames can be very beneficial for grouping related content on a web page.

Cons: Frame access (moving between frames) can be difficult to traverse.

Frames require a document source by default. The document source is the URL to an HTML document. Although web designers can do their part by adding a NAME element to a frame, screen reader manufacturers are able to take this one step further. For example, Window-Eyes will read the title given to an HTML document that is loading into a given frame as the name of the frame, providing the user with a dynamic title every time a new page is loaded into that frame. If the HTML document had no title, then Window-Eyes would resort to reading the name given specifically to that particular frame (this requires the web designer to add the name element). If neither a frame name nor an HTML document title is given, then Window-Eyes will announce “untitled” as the frame name. This is an instance where the screen reader manufacturer took extra steps in making sure that the user would always be notified of the presence of a frame, regardless of whether the frame or HTML document was named by the web designer. (Note: this section also includes IFRAMES).



Forms are designed to allow users to input information, and have that information transmitted to wherever the web page specifies. Popular examples of forms are order forms, search engines, and web based e-mail.

Pros: Forms allow users to conduct online tasks quickly and easily

Cons: Form controls can be difficult to traverse if they are labeled incorrectly.

Forms consist of controls such as edit boxes, check boxes, radio buttons, combo boxes, list views, text areas, and buttons. Creating a form that is accessible requires forethought on both the web designer’s and screen reader manufacturer’s part. When a web designer inputs a control into a form, the must also provide an indication as to what that control is. If an edit box, for example, has no field label, there is no way for a screen reader to know what that edit box should be called. On the other hand, the screen reader must be able to detect a field label and read it correctly to the user. Although advancements have been made in web design that allow web masters to provide labels more efficiently, many screen readers must still be able to track a field label that is close to a control in order for the label to read correctly.



Tables are a collection of horizontal and vertical cells containing information that is relative to a column and row header. The most common form of a table is a spreadsheet.

Pros: Provide quick access to large groups of information.

Cons: Can be difficult to determine location in a table.

Tables are unique in that they serve multiple purposes. While tables can contain formatted information (such as a spreadsheet) they are most commonly used to created web page layout. Cells begin to contain groups of data, rather then single pieces of information. Many web designers use tables to align images, and to combine links into groups of links. If a table contains structured data, in say a textual graph, then it will be useful for the user to be able to determine where in the table they are currently residing. If a table is being used for the placement of images, however, the cell coordinates contain little or no useful information at all. Allowing a table to be accessible is dependant on both the web designer and the screen reader manufacturer. Web designers can add special tags to table headers and rows, and the screen readers can pick up on those tags to provide information as to the location of the currently active table cell.



Many people confuse JAVA and JavaScript. It should be noted that they are two very different languages, and the only thing that they have in common is the word JAVA. JavaScript is a web programming language that allows for a more dynamic and interactive web page.

Pros: JavaScript is very powerful, and provides several accessibility aids.

Cons: JavaScript, when used inappropriately can cause a web page to become inaccessible.

JavaScript is mostly used for the manipulation of color, like the background color of a link when the mouse passes over it. But one of the more powerful features of JavaScript is the use of its accessible features. One such feature allows a key press to perform certain actions. For example, if a page contains a JAVA applet that is not accessible, the web designer can implement a JavaScript key press to perform a task that would bypass the JAVA applet, thereby creating access. Screen reader manufacturers may need to take into account the different results that JavaScript functions can have. For example, JavaScript can be used in conjunction with DHTML to create dynamic text on a page that changes under certain circumstances. A screen reader must be able to tell when that content has changed, and voice the change accordingly.



Cascading Style Sheets are extremely popular for manipulation the styles of elements on a web page. Elements like font family, font size, font color, placement, padding, borders, and special filters can all be applied to make web page more exotic.

Pros: Rarely causes inaccessibility; Powerful features.

Cons: Little implementation among screen readers.

A page that takes advantage of CSS is not only aesthetic, but aural as well. CSS includes a number of styles that can dictate the way a web page is supposed to sound. These elements can affect speech rate, pitch, tone, spelling, and pronunciation. A web designer could state that a block of text is spoken slower so that important information is not missed. Screen reader manufacturers, however, need to take into account that these elements may exist, and must look for them, and take advantage of them when they do.


There are other forms of web page design that can be discussed. The bottom line is that both web masters and screen reader manufacturers must be able to understand why a web page works the way that it does. Often, web designers will use HTML editors that show the page as it is being developed. This is a fine way to design a page, but the problem lies in the fact that the designer may not become familiar with the code use to render the page. Understanding the code provides the designer with knowledge to fix accessibility problems that the editor may not understand. Screen reader developers must also learn to interpret what the code is telling a web page to do. Have this knowledge will provide the screen reader with the ability to take into account many things that were once considered inaccessible.

There are many tools available to examine a site and provide feedback to whether it is accessible or not. Although these tools are valuable, they are not an end all nor are they the final say on accessibility. The only way to understand whether a web page is accessible is to have a number of different people try it out with their own respective screen readers. Simply because a web page causes problem in one screen reader, doesn’t mean that it will cause problems in another screen reader. Although the goal is to be accessible for everyone involved, it is also the responsibility of the screen reader manufacturer to provide solutions.

Through education, and an increase in web design knowledge, and by incorporating accessibility into the design paradigm, web pages can easily become accessible without sacrificing and of the page’s functionality. Web designers need to become more familiar with the code that they develop, and screen reader manufacturers need to before more familiar with how web pages work. With these two forces combined, an inaccessible web page will soon become a thing of the past, and technology will once again be available for all

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